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Bio Lecture Final

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hrdcorhrvivor's version from 2018-05-17 07:19

Section

Question Answer
recombinant bacteriacombined from two different sources, gene of interest inserted into host cell
reverse transcriptasean enzyme used to generate complementary DNA from an RNA template
PCRpolymerase chain reaction, to amplify sample based on semi conservative replication
DNA fingerprintingPCR, restriction fragment formation (1% nucleotide differences), gel electrophoresis
electrophoresisbased on negative charge of phosphate groups, allows matching of DNA fragments
charles darwin1831, 5 year voyage, all species arise from natural selection and inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce
microevolutionmutations, migration, genetic drift (founder effect, bottleneck effect), nonrandom mating, natural selection
macroevolutionfossils, molecular records, anatomical records, phylogenic trees
types of natural selections stabilizing (in the middle), disruptive (extremes), directional (one is preferred)
hardy-weinberg lawconditions that hold to law (also fuck this)
speciation - allopatricdifferent country, divided geographically
speciation - sympatricsame country
binomial system for species namesbinomial classification: two words for each species in latin
kingdom monera, archaea and bacteria nutritionphotosynthetic, chemosynthetic, photoheterotrophic, chemoheterotrophic
pathogenic bacteriatyphus, pneumonia, cholera, syphilil, strep, lyme disease
protozoansunicellular, free living, and parasitic forms
which protozoan uses pseudopodiaamaoeboids
which protozoan uses flagellazooflagellates, trichomonas
which protozoan uses ciliaciliated, paramecium
which protozoan uses no organelles for locomotionsporozoans, plasmodium
moldsslime molds: cellular (like amoeba, makes slugs), plasmodial (makes mulinuclear mass)
algaeunicellular: dinoflagellates, diatoms. multicellular: green algae, red algae, brown algae
nonvascular plantsno true roots, stems or leaves, liverworts and mosses
vascular plantsprimary and secondary growth, ferns, horsetails
gametophytehaploid, 1N mitosis
sporophytediploid, 2N meiosis
fungi nutritionheterotrophic, external digestions by absorption, sprophytic decomposers
fungi structurehyphae and mycelium, cell wall of chitin
edible forms of fungusascomycetes, basidiomycetes
lichenscombination of fungus and algae
flat wormsplatyhelminthes, flukes, tape worms
round wormpinworm is parasitic
annelidssegmented worms, appendages for locomotion
arthropodscrustacea, insects, arachnids, centipedes, millipedes
echinodermsmarine animals, sea starts, sand dollars
reptiles and birdsfertilization is internal, eggs, thermoregulation
mammalshair for thermoregulation, and milk for their young
commensalismpositive and nothing, birds and trees
energy flowproducers, primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary consumers
memorize