o1234567889q's version from 2017-11-04 18:44

Chap 28

Question Answer
Angiosperms are primarily whatproducers
6 one word differences between monocots and eudicotsembryos, roots, stems, leaf venation patterns, pollen, flowers
which angiosperms are the grains we eatmonocots
which angiosperms are the fruits and vegetables we eateudicots
which one has tap rooteudicots
how many openings does monocot pollen haveone
how many openings does dicot pollen havethree
what does vacuole in plant cell dostore water
what is the opposite of roots in plantsshoots
what do shoots take upCO2 and light
what does phloem transportnutrients
xylem transportswater and minerals
what is reproductive shootflower
what is petiolethe stalk that joins a leaf to a stem
which plants are more likely to have taproottaller plants
what do roots storecarbohydrates
examples of adapted roots with specialized functionsaerial roots(climbing roots), storage roots, pneumatophores (air roots)
what does stem consist ofnodes and internodes
what is a nodepoints at which petioles are attached
axillary budcorner of leaf or stem for lateral growth of new branch, thorn, or flower
examples of modified stemsrhizomes (underground), stolons (horizontal), tubers (ex: potatoes)
leaf functionsphotosynthesis, gas exchange, defense, dissipation of heat
examples of modified leavestendrils (thread like and spiral), spines ( like on cactus), storage leaves (layers of onion), reproductive leaves (fall off and take root as new plant)
plants have 3 types of tissues which are all found in roots, stems, and leaves. what are theydermal, vascular, and ground tissue
which type of tissue takes up majority of plant spaceground
which tissue are usually xylem and phloemvascular tissue
name for dermal tissue in nonwoody plantsepidermis
what helps prevent water loss from the epidermiscuticle
what is dermal tissue in woody plantsperiderm
what is the vascular tissue in the root or stem calledstele
describe the root stele compared to stem/leaf stelerespectively solid vs bundled
what is the ground tissue on the inner side of the vascular tissue calledpith
what is the ground tissue on the outside of the vascular tissue calledcortex
what types of cells may ground tissue includecells specialized for photosynthesis, short-distance transport, storage, or support
name the major types of plant cellsParenchyma, Collenchyma, Sclerenchyma, Water-conducting cells of the xylem, Sugar-conducting cells of the phloem
which areas of the plant are collenchyma cells more ingrowing areas like shoots and leaves
which cell type is the average joe plant cellparenchyma
characteristics of parenchyma cellsRetain the ability to divide and differentiate, Alive at maturity, Thin cell wall (just one), Used for food storage (think fruits)
characteristics of collenchyma cellssupport young parts of the plant shoot, Provide flexible support without restraining growth, unevenly thickened cell walls , Alive at maturity; stringy (think celery stalk)
characteristics of sclerenchyma cellsSclerenchyma cells are rigid due to thick secondary walls containing lignin, a strengthening polymer, Dead at functional maturity, For support ; think nut shell
types of sclerenchyma cellsSclereids, Fibers
which two cell types are dead at functional maturityxylem and sclerenchyma
two types of xylemTracheids and vessel elements
Tracheids long, thin cells with tapered ends that move water through pits
vessel elementsalign end to end to form long pipes called vessels
types of phloemsieve-tube elements, Sieve plates, companion cell
companion cellserves both itself and sieve-tube elements (because they lack organelles) with its nucleus and ribosomes
sieve-tube elements lack whatorganelles
different meristems generate new cells forprimary and secondary growth
what does undifferentiated cell refer tocell that has yet to develop into a particular cell variant
define meristemthe tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place
apical meristemsprimary growth lengthening shoot and root
zone of differentiation vs zone of elongationrespectively: shorter newer cells vs longer older cells
leaf primordiaprojections along the sides of the apical meristem
leaf anatomy image
stomatasmall openings that are controlled by the action of guard cells
both the cortex and pith are composed mainly of which type of cellsparenchyma
three types of simple plant tissues that make the basic structure of plantscollenchyma, parenchyma, sclerenchyma
key difference between the parenchyma and sclerenchymathe presence of secondary cell wall in sclerenchyma cells
which cells give support to the stemcollenchyma cells
what does the production of a flower dostops primary growth of the shoot
types of lateral meristemsvascular cambium, cork cambium
where is the vascular cambiumbetween the wood and inner bark
which cells form the inner bark of plantsthin-walled phloem cells
what adds secondary vascular tissuevascular cambium
what replaces epidermis w/ peridermcork cambium
in woody plants when do secondary and primary growth occur in relation to each othersimultaneously but in different locations
which is on the inner side, secondary xylem or secondary phloemsecondary xylem which is wood

chap 29

Question Answer
what things does xylem move and wherewater and minerals from roots to shoots
what things does phloem move and where photosynthetic products from sources to sinks
The mechanism by which sugars are transported through the phloem, from sources to sinks, is calledpressure flow
what are sinksareas in plants in need of nutrition
what is 80-90% of plants fresh masswater
96% of a plant’s dry mass consists ofcarbohydrates from the CO2 reduced during photosynthesis
4% of a plant’s dry mass isinorganic substances from soil
what is a Symbiotic mutualism in rootsmycorrhizal fungi
9 macronutrients plants needcarbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur
8 micronutrients plants needchlorine, iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, nickel, and molybdenum
Phyllotaxy the arrangement of leaves on a stem, is specific to each species
types of phyllotaxywhorled, spiral, alternate, opposite
which leaf orientation is better for sunny conditions and whyvertical leaves are less damaged by sun and allow light to reach lower leaves
which leaf orientation is better for low-light conditions and whyhorizontal leaves capture more sunlight
what need to be open for the gas exchange in photosynthesis to occurstomata
2 major short distant transport pathways through plant cellsapoplast, symplast
which water pathway from root-hairs to xylem is fasterapoplast
which part of the plant does symplast transport consist ofliving parts of the plant body (i.e., protoplasts connected by plasmodesmata
which water transport has more resistance which causes it to go slowersymplast
which transport is affected by metabolic state of rootsymplast
which short transport pathway is external to plasma membraneapoplast
what consist of cytosol and plasmodesmata (channel through the cell wall between cells that allows for exchange of materials between individual cellssymplast
what is plasmodesma (singular)a narrow thread of cytoplasm that passes through the cell walls of adjacent plant cells and allows communication between them
what controls the movement of substances into and out of cellsplasma membrane permeability
what determines the net uptake or water loss by a cellosmosis
what is osmosisthe diffusion of free water across a membrane
why does active transport require energybecause it is the movement of biochemicals from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration
what do aquaporins facilitateosmosis
what are aquaporinstransport proteins in the plasma membrane that allow the passage of water
what happens when aquaporins open or closethey change the rate of water movement across the membrane
types of long distance transportationbulk flow (ex: transpiration)
what is bulk flowthe movement of a fluid down a pressure gradient (different from a concentration gradient)
transpirationloss of water vapor from a plant’s surface
is water getting pushed up or pulled uppulled because of cohesion and adhesion of water molecules
how is pressure as you go up the plantit is lower
what causes cavitationDrought stress or freezing
what is cavitationa blockage in the water channels of the xylem
what regulates the rate of transpirationstomata
what increases water loss through stomataincrease in photosynthesis
why do Guard cells open and close the stomatato help balance water conservation & gas exchange
why do stomata open during the day and close at nightto minimize water loss
what is Stomatal opening triggered bylight, CO2 depletion, an internal clock in guard cells
which organisms have internal clocks (circadian rhythms which are 24 hr cycles)all eukaryotic organisms
which things collectively contribute to plant growthsoil minerals, water, and air
translocationproducts of photosynthesis (i.e., sugars) are transported from sources to sinks
sugar sourcesproducers of sugar like mature leaves
sugar sinksconsumer or storer of sugar such as tubers or bulbs
sugar sources and sinks can change based onseason or environmental conditions
sugars have to be loaded into wherethe phloem
what is phloem loadingthe transfer of sugars (photosynthetic) from mesophyll cells to sieve tube elements in the leaf
what is phloem unloadingthe transfer of sugars (photosynthetic) from sieve tube elements to the receiver cells of consumption end (i.e., sink or­gans)
symplastic loadingsucrose is moved into the companion cell and sieve element through plasmodesmata
apoplastic loadingsucrose is pumped across the plasma membrane from the cell wall space by sucrose transporters
how does water move in water potentialfrom the system with a higher water potential to the system with a lower water potential
what causes water to move from the soil into plant roots via osmosisThe internal water potential of a plant cell is more negative than pure water
what is critical for moving water to leaves so that photosynthesis can take placewater potential
Sucrose manufactured in mesophyll cells can travel via what to wherevia the symplast to sieve-tube elements
what type of mechanism is responsible for the active transport of sucrosechemiosmotic
what is chemiosmosisthe movement of ions across a semipermeable membrane, down their electrochemical gradient
examples of sinksshoot tips and root tips (areas which actively grow)
how are phloem cells connected to each otherby sieve plates
translocationthe transport of sugar through plant


Bio II Exam II (cont.)