Bio Genetics

theoknopf's version from 2017-05-24 01:30

Section 1

Question Answer
Simple dominanceThe dominant allele takes over the recessive allele and you can not see the recessive allele in the phenotype
Incomplete DominanceThe phenotypes combine to make something new Ex: if a red flower and a white flower reproduced it would make a pink flower
CodominancePhenotypes do not combine, instead they both are prevalent Ex: if a red flower and a white flower reproduced, then the new flower is red and white
Multiple Alleles and blood-typingThere are three or more alleles that could occur in a locus however, there can only be two alleles in an individual. Ex:blood type has three alleles, A, B, O but only two can be in a person. The options are A,B,AB, or O.
Polygenic traitsA trait that is affected by three or more genes and each gene can have many allele options Ex: if you are dominant for all three (or more) genes of height you will be tall
Law of segregation The gene pair separate in the formation of gametes. One gamete takes one allele the other gamete takes the other.
Law of assortment the assignment of one gene to a gamete is independent of the assignment of the other genes

Section 2

Question Answer
Phenotype Phenotypes are the traits you get from the alleles
GenotypeGenotypes are the groups of alleles you have
AlleleDifferent versions of the gene
Test crossA cross that figures out genes are dominant
Autosome A chromosome that is not sex linked
Autosomal dominant Is when only one parent has the dominant gene but the child can still get the gene
Sex linked A sex gene needs to be carried by a sex chromosome to be passed down
Autosomal recessive Both parents need to have the recessive gene in order for a child to get the gene
CarrierSomeone that has the allele but does not show the trait

Section 3

Question Answer
Phenylketonuria autosomal recessive
Cystic fibrosis: autosomal recessive
Tay-Sachs diseaseautosomal recessive
Huntington’s Diseaseautosomal dominant
Hemophilia sex-linked recessive
Color-blindness sex-linked recessive

Section 4

Question Answer
Deletion When a part of DNA is lost during DNA replication
InversionWhen a chromosome gets rearranged because a segment is turned upside down
TranslocationWhen a part of a chromosome is moved
Polyploidywhen organisms have more than two homologous pairs and the pairs become groups
Non-disjunctionWhen chromosome pairs do not separate completely and the daughter cells don’t have the correct set of chromosomes

Section 5

Question Answer
Pleiotropy when one defective gene causes many effects in the phenotype
Pleiotropic effectsMarfan syndrome, sickle cell disease
EpistasisGenes mask each others presence or combine to produce a new trait (When one gene stops another from showing like an epipen stops an allergic reaction)