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Bio genetics

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charlotteamannt's version from 2018-10-08 10:08

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Genomeall the genetic information of an organism.
Geneheritable factor that consists of a length of DNA and influences a specific characteristic.
Gene locusspecific position of a gene on a chromosome.
Chromosome long DNA molecules which contain many genes.
Allelevariant form of a gene.
Plasmidsmall circular DNA molecules that can contribute antibiotic resistance.
Autosomes chromosomes that do not determine the sex of the organism, but instead they control the inheritance of all traits except the sex-linked ones, which are under the control of sex chromosomes.
Chismata (sing chiasma)points of contact between homologous chromosomes or non-sister chromatids. It marks the place where exchange of genetic material occurs.
Non-disjunctionwhen homologous chromosomes can fail to separate during anaphase I or II
Gametessex cells, are either male or female in origin and contain a haploid set of chromosomes with only one allele of each gene.
Zygote result of the fusing of the female and male gametes, the ovum and sperm, respectively. Zygotes are diploid and contain two alleles of each gene.
PhenotypeAn organism's observable characteristics or traits (for example, its morphology and biochemical or physiological properties).
Recessive allele allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in two copies
Heterozygouswhen its cells contain two different alleles at a gene locus
Linked genesgenes found close together on the same chromosome. The closer the distance between two linked genes, the lower the chance that they can be separated by crossing over. That means they are inherited together.
Law of segregationeach gene pair separates so that one gene goes into each gamete
Law of independent assortmentAny 1 gene of a pair may combine with either of another gene pair during gamete formation
Sex linkagethe phenotypic expression of an allele that is dependent on the gender of the individual and is directly tied to the sex chromosome
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