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BIO EXAM

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2017-08-10 16:59

CELL THEORY

Question Answer
Spontaneous GenerationThe hypothetical process by which living organisms develop from nonliving matter
Spontaneous Generation also, the archaic (primitive) theory that utilized this process to explain the or origin of life.
Cell Theory (3)(1.) All living things are made of cells, (2.) Cells come from other cells, (3.) Cells are the smallest unit of life.
Robert HookeFirst to View Cells
Robert HookeIn 1665, he used a microscope to examine a thin slice of cork (dead plant cell walls)
Robert HookeWhat he saw looked like small boxes
Robert Hookeis responsible for naming cells
They looked like the small rooms that monks lived in called CellsHooke called them CELLS because
Anton van Leeuwenhoeka Dutch microscope maker
Anton van LeeuwenhoekIn 1676, he was first to view organism (living things)
Anton van Leeuwenhoek used a simple, handheld microscope to view pond water & scrapings from his teeth
Anton van Leeuwenhoekanimalcules
19th Century AdvancementMuch doubt existed around Spontaneous Generation
19th Century AdvancementConclusively disproved by Louis Pasteur
Louis PasteurBiogenesis
Louis PasteurSwan neck flask
Louis PasteurNutrient broth
Swan neck flaskmeans to control environment
Nutrient brothis the liquid form of agar
Matthias SchleidenIn 1838, he concluded that all plants were made of cells
Theodore SchwannIn 1839, he concluded that all animals were made of cells
Theodore Schwann & Matthias Schleidenfounded the cell theory
Modern Cell Theory(1) All the different parts of plants and animals are MADE UP OF CELLS, (2) ALL LIVING CELLS IS COMPOSED OF 1 OR MORE CELLS
Rudolph Virchowobserved, under the microscope, cells dividing
Rudolph VirchowHe reasoned that all cells come from other preexisting cells by cell division
Rudolph VirchowPlagiarize Robert Remak
memorize

MICROSCOPE

Question Answer
CellsAll organisms are composed of cells
Light microscopeuses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small samples.
Light microscopeare the oldest design of microscope and were invented in the 17th century.
Light microscopeCan be monocular or binocular.
Scanning Electron Microscopeallows scientists to view a universe too small to be seen with a light microscope.
Scanning Electron Microscopedo not use light waves; they use electrons (negatively charged electrical particles) to magnify
Scanning Electron Microscope creates a 3D view of specimen, but cannot view living specimens (process kills them)
Transmission Electron Microscopealso uses electrons, but instead of scanning the surface electrons are passed through very thin specimens.
5 Microscope Care(1) Always carry with 2 hands, one hand on the arm, one on the base, (2) Only use lens paper for cleaning, (3) Do not force knobs, (4) Always store covered, (5) Keep objects clear of desk and cords
Scanning Objective LensMagnification = 4x
Low Power Objective LensMagnification = 10x
High Power Power Objective LensMagnification = 40x
Cytological TechniqueUse dye / stain to directly observe living cells
Cytological TechniqueStains were taken up by living cells without killing them and selectively stain intracellular structure without affecting cellular metabolism
memorize

CELL STRUCTURES

Question Answer
turning different genes on and offCells in a multi-cellular organism become specialized by
DIFFERENTIATIONCells in a multi-cellular organism become specialized by turning different genes on and off
one millimeter down to one micrometerCells range in size from
Volumeis living cytoplasm, which demands nutrients and produces wastes
Large cellssurface area relative to volume decreases
Smaller cellHas a higher surface to volume ratio, which facilitates the exchange of materials into and out of the cell
(1) Surface area, (2) Volume of a cell2 Factors Affecting Cell Size
Prokaryotesare the simplest cellular organisms
ProkaryotesThey have genetic material but no nucleus.
Prokaryotessmall, consisting of cytoplasm surrounded by a plasma membrane and encased within a rigid cell wall, with no distinct interior compartments
Prokaryoteslack a membrane bound nucleus
Prokaryotesgenetic material is naked within the cytoplasm
(1) Bacteria, (2) ArchaeaProkaryotic cells are placed in two taxonomic domains
ArchaeaLive in extreme habitats
BacteriaVery important in the economy of living organisms
Bacteriausually single-celled, except when they exist in colonies
Bacteriacells reproduce by means of binary fission
Ribosomesite of protein synthesis
Ribosomeis the only type of organelle in Cutplasm
Inclusion bodystored nutrients for later use
Mesosomeplasma membrane that folds into the cytoplasm and increases surface area
Fimbriaehairlike bristles that allow adhesion to the surfaces
Fimbriaesmall, bristle-like fibers that sprout from the cell surface
Conjugation piluselongated, hollow appendage used for DNA transfer to other bacterial cells
Nucleoidlocation of the bacterial chromosome
Nucleoidis a region that contains the single, circular DNA molecule.
Plasma membranesheath around cytoplasm that regulates entrance & exit of molecules
Cell wallcovering that supports, shapes, and protects cell
Glycocalyxgel-like coating outside cell wall; if compact, called a capsule; if diffuse, called a slime layer
Flagellumrotating filament present in some bacteria that pushes the cell forward
Flagellum/FlagellaProvide motility
Pilirigid tubular structures used to pass DNA from cell to cell
Plasmidsare small accessory (extrachromosomal) rings of DNA
(1) Semifluid solution, (2) Has nucleoid, (3) Has Plasmids, (4) Has Ribosomes 4 The Structure of Bacteria Cytoplasm
Semifluid solutionBounded by plasma membrane
Semifluid solutionContains water, inorganic and organic molecules, and enzymes.
(1) Has flagella, (2) Has fimbriae, (3) Has PiliThe Structure of Appendages
The cell must divideWhen the surface area is no longer great enough to get rid of all the wastes and to get in enough food and water, _________
memorize

CELL STRUCTURES 2

 

Question Answer
Bacterial cell wallPeptidoglycan or Murein which consists of a carbohydrate matrix (polymers of sugars) that is cross-linked by short polypeptide units
Bacterial cell wallgives the cell shape, protect the cell, maintain its shape, and prevent excessive uptake of water.
Bacterial cell wallprovides important ligands for adherence and receptor sites for viruses or antibiotics.
structure of their cell wallsThe susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics often depends on the _____________
Rotating Flagellalong, threadlike structures protruding from the surface of a cell that are used in locomotion and feeding.
Rotating Flagellaprotein fibers that extend out from a bacterial cell. depending on the species.
Rotating FlagellaBacteria can swim at speeds up to 20 cell diameters per second by rotating their flagella like screws within their cell walls and membranes powers the rotation.
(1) Gram positive, (2) Gram NegativeBacteria Classification
Gram-positivebacteria have a thick, single-layered cell wall that retains a violet dye from the Gram stain procedure
Gram-negativemultilayered and does not retain the purple dye after Gram staining; such bacteria exhibit the background red dye and are characterized
(1) Protists, (2) Fungi, (3) Plants, (4) Animals4 Domain Eukarya includes
Eukaryotic CellsCells contain membrane-bound nucleus that houses DNA
Eukaryotic CellsCells contain specialized organelles
Eukaryotic CellsCells contain plasma membrane
Eukaryotic Cellsare compartmentalized
Eukaryotic CellsThey contain small structures called organelles
(1) Endomembrane system, (2) Energy related organellesTwo classes of eukaryotic cell organelles
Endomembrane systemOrganelles that communicate with one another
Energy related organellesBasically independent & self-sufficient
Cell fractionationis the breaking apart of cellular components
Differential centrifugationAllows separation of cell parts; Separated out by size & density
Plasma membraneouter surface that regulates entrance and exit of molecules
Cytoskeletonmaintains cell shape and assists movement of cell parts
Microtubulesprotein cylinders that move organelles
Intermediate filamentsprotein fibers that provide stability of shape
Actin filamentsprotein fibers that play a role in change of shape
Centriolesshort cylinders of microtubules of unknown function
Centrosomemicrotubule organizing center that contains a pair of centrioles
memorize

CELL STRUCTURES 3

 

Question Answer
Lysosomevesicle that digests macromolecules and even cell parts
Vesiclesmall membranebounded sac that stores and transports substances
Cytoplasmsemifluid matrix outside nucleus that contains organelles
Golgi apparatusprocesses, packages, and secretes modified proteins
Mitochondrionorganelle that carries out cellular respiration, producing ATP molecules
Polyribosomestring of ribosomes simultaneously synthesizing same protein
Ribosomesparticles that carry out protein synthesis
Peroxisomevesicle that is involved in fatty acid metabolism
Smooth ERlacks ribosomes, synthesizes lipid molecules
Rough ERstudded with ribosomes that synthesize proteins
Endoplasmic reticulumprotein and lipid metabolism
Nucleolusregion that produces subunits of ribosomes
Chromatindiffuse threads containing DNA and protein
Nuclear envelopedouble membrane with nuclear pores that encloses the nucleus
Nucleuscommand center of cell
(1) plasma membrane, (2) nucleoid or nucleus, (3) cytoplasmTHREE MAJOR FEATURES ALL CELLS
memorize

CELL STRUCTURES 4

 

Question Answer
Plasma membranebarrier between the cytoplasm inside the cell and the environment outside the cell
Plasma membraneencloses a cell and separates its contents from its surroundings
Plasma membraneprotects and supports the cell and also controls everything that enters and leaves the cell.
Plasma membraneallows only certain substances to pass through, while keeping others in or out
PhospholipidsLipid that contains a phosphate group
Phospholipid bilayeracts as a barrier to the passage of molecules and ions into and out of the cell
Phospholipid bilayerallow selective passage of certain substances into and out of cells which is accomplished by the embedding of various protein molecules in and through the lipid bilayer
Nucleoidis noncompartmentalized and contains a single, long, continuous, circular thread of DNA.
Nuclear MembraneContains inner and outer membrane; and nuclear pores for materials to enter & leave nucleus
Nuclear MembraneConnected to the rough ER
Nuclear MembraneRegulates the passage of macromolecules such as proteins and RNA
Nuclear MembraneFree passage of water, ions, ATP and other smaller molecules
Multinucleatenucleus divides but the cytoplasm does not.
small &large subunitRibosome Structure has two sub-units which are_____________
Small subunitSubunit that reads the mRNA
Large subunitjoins the amino acids to form a chain of polypeptides.
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Volume increases FASTER than the surface area
Therefore, the cells of an organism are close in size
Cells need a large surface area of plasma membrane to adequately exchange materials.
The surface-area-to-volume ratio requires that cells be small
Surface area (plasma membrane surface) : is determined by multiplying length times width (L x W)
Volume of a cell is determined by multiplying length times width times height (L x W x H)