kasakuse's version from 2016-10-21 14:40

Section 1

Question Answer
What is the role of water in photosynthesis?it provides electrons
Energy required for photosynthesis to occur comes fromvisible light
If a plant was not chlorophyll what will happen?it will fail to thrive because it cannot caprute light energy
Where does the oxygen released during photosynthesis come from?H2O
is NADPH requried during the light reactrions?no
is NADPH required during the calvin cycle?yes
before photosynthesis evolved, what element was rare in the Earth's atmosphere?oxygen
What is the order for reactions of the calvin cycle?carbon fixation, the synthesis of G3P, and the regeneration of RuBP
A plant lacks stomata. What would be the effect of this?CO2 would not be able to enter the plant as a reactant for photosynthesis
the ATP and NADPH synthesized during the light reactions are....moved to the stroma
light reactions of photosynthesis results in what?the synthesis of ATP and NADPH
The products of glycolysis are...ATP, NADH, and pyruvate
If no O2 is available in a cell, then the net ATP production from the metabolism of a single glucose molecule is2 ATP
During which step of aerobic respiration is O2 used?during the electron transport system
An example of an electron transport molecule (2)NADH and FADH2
what is the correct order of the main events of cellular respiration?glycolysis, kreb cycle, ETC, major ATP production
if glucose is metabolized under completely anaerobic conditions, pyruvate is converted to lactate or CO2 and ethanol through fermentation
How can glycolysis continue producing energy when O2 is not present?fermentation regenerates the NAD+ needed for glycolysis from NADH as pyruvate is converted to lactate
Chemiosmosis in the mitochondria directly results in the synthesis ofATP
some of the CO2 that is exhaled during breathing is created duringthe conversion of pyruvate to acetyl CoA
why is glycolysis distinct from cellular respiration?because glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and cellular respiration occurs in the mitochondria
When O2 is not present, ________fermentation produces lactic acid and NAD+
what happens to the low energy electrons at the end of the electron transport system?are accepted by O2 and hydrogen and make water
You help a friend move and then your arms and legs are sore the next day. Why?Your overworked muscles did not get enough O2 adn switched to fermentation which builds up lactate
In Cellular Respiration, the ETC builds a proton (H+) concentration gradient where? high in intermembrane space; low in matrix
How is ATP synthesized by chemiosmosis As H+ ions flow back DOWN their concentration gradient through ATP Synthase, ATP is made
Living things consistently use energy to survive. For nearly all forms of life, this energy ultimately comes fromsunlight
How are energy-carrier molecules generated in the light-dependent reactions? The energy given off as electrons jumps from carrier to carrier and is captured in coupled reactions, making ATP and NADPH
In the Calvin cycle, where do the carbons used to synthesize glucose originate?CO2
How are the light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle related?The energy-carrier molecules of the light- dependent reactions fuel the Calvin cycle.
the source of cellular energy to make fuelPhotosynthesis
pores on the underside of a leaf through which plants obtain CO2 for photosynthesisstomata
a layer of cells lying underneath the cuticle and present both on the upper and lower surface of a leafepidermmis
are transparentstomata and epidermis
where is the epidermis locatedon the bottom and top surfaces
where are stomata locatedon the underside of a leaf
the layers of cells within the leaf that contain chloroplasts (which do photosynthesis)mesophyll
surround the vascular bundles that supply water and materials to the leaf and carry sugar away. These cells lack chloroplastsbundle sheath cells
_______ are organelles with a double membrane enclosing a fluid called the stromachloroplasts
embedded in the stroma are disk-shaped membrane sacs calledthylakoids

Section 2

Question Answer
what is photosynthesis definition?the process by which solar energy is trapped and stored as chemical energy in the bonds of sugar
what are the two products of photosynthesis?oxygen and glucose
what are the three reactants of photosynthesis?CO2+water+sunlight
the outer surface of a plant cellcuticle
what is the function of the cuticle?a transparent, waxy, waterproof covering that reduces the evaporation of water
what is the stomata?pores on the underside of a leaf through which plants obtain CO2 for photosynthesis. O2 also exits through the stomata
what do stomata look like?a cyclops
openings of the underside of leaf for gas exchangestomata
what is the mesophyll?the layers of cells within the leaf that contain chloroplasts (which do photosynthesis)
what are bundle sheath cells?they surround the vascular bundles that supply water and materials to the leaf and carry sugar away. These cells lack chloroplasts.
what cells are mostly for transport and not for photosynthesis?bundle sheath cells
the stroma of the chloroplasts is analegous of the _______ of the mitochondriamatrix
what are chloroplasts?are organelles with a double membrane enclosing a fluid called the stroma. They are in charge of photosynthesis.
the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis occur where?adjacent to the membranes of the thylakoids
the aqeuous space in the chloroplaststroma
the pancake stacks in the chloroplast that are in the aqueous spacethylakoids
what is the difference between stroma in chloroplasts and the matrix in the mitochondira?the stroma is filled with membrane sacs called thylakoids
plant cells A.) Only have chloroplasts B.) Only have mitochondria C.) have mitochondria and chloroplastsC.) have mitochondria and chloroplasts
do plant cells do through cellular respiration?yes
light reactions are the "....""photo"
calvin cycle is the "...""synthesis"
the green pigament found in chloroplastschlorophyll a

Section 3

Question Answer
light dependent reactions occur in the thylakoid
light independent reactions occur in thethe stroma
what is the light dependent reactions?conversion of sunlight energy to chemical energy
what is the light independent reactions?the synthesis of glucose and other molecules
What two carrier molecules is sunlight energy stored as in light dependent reactions?ATP and NADPH
what is the electron carrier of light dependent reactions?NADPH
visible light is between400-750
light dependant reactions equationsunlight->ATP+NADPH
which type of chlorophyll is critical for photosynthesis?chlorophyll a
why are plants green?because green light is not absorbed but is reflected making plants appear green
chlorophyll a absorbs energy from what?from light; mostly blue-red light but cannot absorb green light
what are accessory pigments?they absorb additional wavelengths of light energy and transfer them to chlorophyll a
what does chlorophyll b do?it absorbs blue and red-orange wavelengths of light missed by chlorophyll a.
what do cantenoids do?they are accessory pigaments that absorb blue and green light, and appear yellow or orange to our eyes because they reflect these colors
light reactions include what two systems?photosystem II and photosystem I
true or false: the cuticle is waterprooftrue. This is because it reduces the evaporation of water

Section 4

Question Answer
what color do cantenoids appear to be?yellow or orange because they do not absorb these colors but reflect them. They absorb blue and green light. They are accessory pigaments
what is a cantenoid?an acessory pigament
what is chlorophyll b?*an acessory pigament*
what does chlorophyll b do?it absorbs blue and red-orange wavelengths of light missed by chlorophyll a
What is Stomata and what is stroma?Stomata are the pores on the underside of a leaf through which plants obtain CO2 for photosynthesis and O2 exits. Stroma is the fluid membrane of chloroplasts.
Underneath the cuticle is theepidermis
contains chloroplastsmesophyll cells
What are the energy sources for the Calvin cycle?ATP and NADPH
In the calvin cycle what is the product of ATP and NADPHATP is converted to ADP and NADPH is converted to NADP+ and they are brought back to the thylakoid from the stroma to be used for light reactions.
is photosynthesis endogonic or exogonic?endogonic
what are photosystems within thylakoids made up of?proteins, chlorophyll, and accessory pigaments
what are the five steps in the light reactions?1.) Accessory pigments in Photosystems absorb light and pass energy to reaction centers containing chlorophyll a 2.)reaction centers receive energized e-'s 3.)Energized e-'s are passed down ETC via electron carrier molecules 4.)Energy released from passed e-'s used to synthesize ATP from ADP+PI 5.)Energized e-'s also used to make NADPH from NADP+ and H+
each photosystem has a unique___________ETC located adjacent to it. These ETC each consist of a series of electron carrier molecules EMBEDDED in the thylakoid membrane
PS II:collects sunlight and e- from H2O, passes e- to ETC to make ATP
PS I: collects sunlight and electrons from PS II; passes it to ETC to make NADPH
where do the elctrons come from?splitting of H2O
How is ATP made?through chemiosmosis
light dependant reactions and H+ gradientcreates H+ gradient from splitting water into H+ and O2 inside the Thylakoid. E-'s moving thru ETC II push H+ from stroma to thylakoid space.
The proton gradient is ______ in thylakoid space and ______ in stromaH+ gradient HIGH in thylakoid space and LOW in stroma
what is the proton gradient used for?used by ATP synthase to make ATP synthesis in the stroma.

Section 5

Question Answer
three steps of chemiosmosis1.) H+ is pumped into the thylakoid space 2.)The flow of H+ down its concentration gradient powers ATP synthesis 3.)high H+ concentration gradient created in thylakoid space
what is used to power the synthesis of glucose during light-independant reactions?ATP and NADPH produced by light dependant reactions
how can glucose synthesis happen in the abscense of light?if ATP and NADPH are already available in stroma
three steps of carbon cycle:1.)carbon fixation 2.)synthesis of G3P 3.)regeneration of RuBP which allows the cycle to continue
carbon fixationcombine CO2 with RUBP using the enzyme Rubisco. Creates PGA. converts inorganic carbon in CO2 to organic carbon.
synthesis of G3PEnergy from ATP and NADPH is used to convert PGA to six molecules of G3P. One molecule of G3P leaves the cycle (2 molecules of G3P need to combine to form glucose)
Regernation of RuBPusing the energy from ATP the 5 G3P are converted to 3 molecules of RuBP
how many times through the calvin cycle creates a glucose?2
glucose can bebroken down later by cellular respiration or stored as starch