Bio Exam 2

michelleburkee2's version from 2015-10-02 22:40

Section 1

Question Answer
what is the cell theory?cells are the basic units of life
The three principles of the cell theory1.) Every living organism is made up of 1 or more cells 2.) the smallest organisms are single cells, and cells are the functional units of multicellular organisms 3.)All cells arise from preexisting cells
The range in size of cells1 to 100 micrometers in dinameter
What are bigger: prokaryotic cells or eukaryotic cellseukaryotic cells
the process whereby molecules dissolved in liquids move from highky concentrated region to a lesser concentrated regiondiffusion
Molecules in the cell diffuse ______ and are transported _____. passivley; actively
the three common feautures of all cells1.) plasma membrane surrounds cytoplasm 2.) Use DNA as heredity blueprint 3.)Use RNA to copy the blueprint and guide the construction of cell parts
what is the plasma membrane composed of?lipid, protein, and carbohydrate molecules
this encloses the cell and allows interactions between the cell and its environmentplasma membrane
most of the cell's metabolic activities occur where?in the cytoplasm
what does the cytoplasm consist of?All of the fluid and structures that lie inside the plasma membrane but outside of the nucleus
What is the fluid portion of the cytoplasm?cytosol
What does the fluid portion of the cytoplams contain?water, salts, and organic molecules
guides the construction of proteinsRNA
Prokaryotic cells are found inbacteria and archea
eukaryotic cells are found in fungi, plants, animals, and protists
protects and supports the cell in prokaryotes and eukaryote plantscell wall
the cell wall is present in ________prokaryotes and eukaryotic plants
move the cell through flud or move fluid past the cell surfacescilia
cilia is found in eukaryotic animals and some eukaryotic plants
flagella is found in prokaryotes, eukaryoes, and found in some eukaryotic plants
move the cell through fluidflagella
the plasma membrane is found inprokaryotes and all eukaryotes
isolates the cell contents from the environment; regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell; allows communication with other cellsplasma membrane
cilia is found on the cell surface
contain and control the use of DNAchromosomes
contrains chromosomes and nucleolinucleus
encloses the nucleus; regulates movement of materials into and out of the nucleusnucleur envelope
synthesizes ribosomesnucleolus
how are chromosomes found in the prokaryotic cell?single, circular, no proteins
how are chromosomes found in eukaryotic cells?many of them; linear; with proteins
is there a nucleus in the prokaryotic cells?no.
is there a nucleus in eukaryotic cells?yes.
there is a nuclear envelope in prokaryotic cells (t/f)false
there is a nucleur envelope in eukaryotic cells. (t/f)true
provide sites for protein synthesisribosomes
produces energy by aerobic metabolismmitochondria
perform photosynthesischloroplasts
synthesizes membrane components, proteins, and lipidsendoplasmic reticulum
modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipidsgolgi apparatus
contain digestive enzymes, digests food and worn out organelleslysosomes
store food, pigmentsplastids
contains water and wastes; provides turgor pressure to support the cellcentral vacuole
transport secretory products; contain food obtained through phagocytosisother vesticles and vacuoles
gives shape and support to the cell; positions and moves cell partscytoskeleton
produce the basal bodies of cilia and flagellacentrioles
ribosomes are present in all types of cells (t/f)true. they are found in all types of cells.
mitochondria are present in all types of cells. (t/f)false. they are not present in the prokaryotes. They are present in the eukaryotes.
chloroplasts are found in all types of cells. (t/f)false. they are only found in eukaryotic plants. they are not found in prokayotes or eukaryotic animals.
what kind of structure is a ribosome?a cytoplasmic structure
is a mitochondria a cytoplasmic structure?yes it is.

Section 2

Question Answer
diffusionThe process whereby molecules dissolved in liquids move from a highly concentrated region to a lesser concentrated region
this regulates the passage of ions and molecules in and out of cellsplasma membrane
flagella is found on thecell surface
there is a nucleolus in the prokaryotic cell (t/f)false
there is a nucleolus in the eukaryotic cell (t/f)true
endoplasmic reticulum are found in all types of cells. (t/f)false. they are found in eukaryotes NOT prokaryotes.
t/f lysosomes are found in all types of cells.false. they are only found in eukaryotic animals and some (not many) eukaryotic plants.
t/f. plastids are found in all types of cells.false. they are only found in eukaryotic plants
chloroplasts are what type of structure?cytoplasmic structure.
are endoplasmic reticulum a cytoplasmic structure?yes.
DNA is transcribed to RNA in the ________nucleus
RNA is exported to _____ where it is translated to protein by the ribosome.cytoplasm
the flow of genetic informationDNA-> RNA -> protein
the three major parts of the nucleusnuclear envelope, chromatin, and nucleolus
a double membrane perforated by nucleur pores that allow water, ions, and small molecules to pass freelynucleur envelope
regulates passage or protein, pieces of ribosomes, and RNAnucleur pore complex
the control center for eukaryotic cellnucleus
What makes up the endomembrane system?the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesicles, and vacuoles
what is the function of the endomembrane system?: it segregates molecules from the cytosol and ensures biochemical processes occur in an orderly fashion
Question Answer
What is each part of the endomembrane system responsible for?for synthesizing/ modifying or destroying several types of molecules
fluid membranes so they fuse and exchange cargo with each othermembranes in the endomembrane system
where is the endomembrane system foundthe eukaryotic cytoplasm
membranous sacs transporting molecules to various regions of the membrane systemvesicles
exocytosisthe process whereby vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane as they export their contents outside the cell
endocytosis: the process whereby the plasma membrane extends and surrounds material just outside the cell, fuses and then pinches off to form a vesicle inside the cell.
a series of interconnected membranes that form a labyrinth of flattened sacs and channels within the cytoplasm: Endoplasmic reticulum
Rough endoplasmic reticulum: is studded with ribosomes and produces proteins destined for other membranes or for secretion
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum: has no ribosomes, detoxifies drugs, and synthesizes lipids such as steroid hormones made from cholesterol.
Question Answer
it produces the phospholipids and cholesterol used in membrane formation *.smooth endoplasmic reticulum*
It can synthesize more membrane for itself, for the Golgi complex, the cell membrane, lysosomes, and others %: smooth endoplasmic reticulum%
Question Answer
modifies, sorts, and packages important molecules*Golgi apparatus*
it sorts proteins and lipids received from the ER%Golgi apparatus %
it packages the finished molecules into vesicles that are then transported to other parts of the cell or to the plasma membraneGolgi apparatus
secreted proteins are _____ as they move through the cellmodified
serve as the cell's digestive system: lysosomes
functions of vacuoles: maintains water balance, stores hazardous wastes, nutrients, and pigments, and provides turgor pressure to keep cells rigid.
contractile vacuoles: composed of collecting ducts, a central reservoir, and a tube leading to a pore in the plasma membrane that carries excess water out of the organism
what makes up 3/4 of a plant cell: vacuoles
Question Answer
what keeps cells rigid?turgor pressure
What do eukaryotic cells have to extract energy from food?: mitochondria
Question Answer
What do prokaryotic cells have to obtain energy from the sun?chloroplasts
do prokaryotes have mitochondria?!no!
Do eukaryotes have chloroplasts?no.
Capture energy stored in sugar by producing ATP in eukaryotic cells*mitochondria*
capture energy directly from sunlight and store it in sugar molecules in prokaryotic cellschloroplasts

Section 3

Question Answer
composed of a lipid, protein, and carbohydratethe plasma membrane
plasma membrane is found on the cell surface
(t/f) golgi apparatus are found in all types of cells.false. they are only found in eukaryotes
t/f. central vacuoles are found in all types of cells. false. they are onle found in eukaryotic plants.
what are "other vesticles and vacuoles" found in? (cell type)eukaryotes
what type of cell(s) are cytoskeletons found in?all types of cells. prokaryotes and eukaryotes
what types of cells are centrioles found in?eukaryotic animals and some eukaryotic plants (but not many)
the 11 cytoplasmic structuresribosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, plastids, central vacuole, other vesticles and vacuoles, cytoskeleton, and centrioles
the outer surfaces of plants, fungi, and some protists are covered with nonliving, relatively stiff coatings called __________cell walls
what are plant cell walls composed of?cellulose and other polysaccharides
what are fungal cell walls composed of?polysacharides and chitin
plastids and a central vacuole are not found inanimal cells
vesticles, vacuoles, and cilia are not found inplant cells
what are the three protein fibers that make up the cytoskeleton?microfillaments, medium-sized intermideate fillaments, and thick microtubles
what is the purpose of the cytoskeleton?provides shape, support, cell movement, organelle movement, and cell division.
twisted double strands of protein subunits; about 7nm in diametermicrofilaments
helical subunits twisted around one another and bundled into clusters of four, which may be further twisted together. about 10 nm in diameterintermediate filaments
tubes consisting of spirals of two-part protein subunits; about 25nm in diametermicrotubules
the protein subunits of microfilamentsactin
the protein subunit of microtubulestubulin
protein subunits of intermediate filamentsproteins differ depending on functio and cell type
allow muscle cell contraction; help cells change shape; seperate daughter cells during division*microfilaments*
provide supportiveinternal scafolding that helps maintain cell shape*intermediate filaments*
transport organelles within the cell; components of cilia and flagella; guide chromosome movements during cell division*microtubules*
are highly versatile, functioning in cytokinesis, amoeboid movement, and changes in cell shape.#microfilaments#
: maintaining the structure of the cell. make up the internal structure of cilia and flagella.They provide platforms for intracellular transport and are involved in a variety of cellular processes, including the movement of secretory vesicles, organelles, and intracellular substances (see entries for dynein and kinesin).[3] They are also involved in cell division (mitosis and meiosis)#microtubules#
provide mechanical support for the plasma membrane where it comes into contact with other cells or with the extracellular matrix.#intermediate filaments#
do not participate in cell motility.&intermediate filaments&
participate in cell motility&microfilaments and microtubules&
move the cell through fluid or move the fluid past the cellcilia and flagella
cilia and flagella arise from a ________basal body which anchors them to the plasma membrane
what are basal bodies?derived from centrioles, which are identical in structure to basal bodies and reside near the center of the cell
what are centrioles?pair of structures near the center of the cell from which long microtubules emanate
most animal sperm rely on ______ for movementflagella
what does the nucleur enevelope allow to pass through it?water, ions, and small molecules
what does the nucleur pore complex regulate the passage of?proteins, pieces of ribosome, and RNA
consists of DNA wrapped around proteinschromatin
the four roles of chromatinmake DNA fit, protect it from damage, control gene expression, and prepare DNA for cell division (mitosis)
during cell division (mitosis) the compaction ______ abd chromosomes become ____increases; organized and visable
DNA is copied into messanger RNA, which travels through the _______ to the _____, where it directs protein synthesisnuclear pores; cytoplasm
the site of ribosome assemblynucleolus
translates mRNA to make proteinribosomes
make up of ribosomesribosomal RNA and proteins
endomembrane system includesnuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vesticles, and vacuoles.