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BIO EXAM 2

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baejuhyeoned's version from 2017-08-10 18:45

Eukaryotic Cells

Question Answer
Proteinslarge hydrophobic domains, which associate with and become embedded in the phospholipid bilayer.
Proteins responsible for a cell’s ability to interact with its environment.
Transport proteinshelp molecules and ions move across the plasma membrane, either from the environment to the interior of the cell or vice versa.
Receptor proteinsinduce changes within the cell when they come in contact with specific molecules in the environment, such as hormones.
Markersidentify the cell as a particular type.
Glycoproteins have carbohydrate tails to act as markers for cell recognition
Cell Membrane in PlantsLies immediately against the cell wall in plant cells
Cell Membrane in PlantsPushes out against the cell wall to maintain cell shape
CytoskeletonMaintains cell shape
CytoskeletonAssists in movement of cell and organelles
CytoskeletonAssemble and disassemble as needed
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Eukaryotic Cells 1

 

Question Answer
(1) Actin Filaments, (2) Intermediate Filaments, (3) MicrotubulesThree types of macromolecular fibers
Actin Filaments/ MicrofilamentExtremely thin filaments like twisted pearl necklace
Actin Filaments/ MicrofilamentDense web just under plasma membrane maintains cell shape
Actin Filaments/ MicrofilamentSupport for microvilli in intestinal cells
Actin Filaments/ MicrofilamentIntracellular traffic control
Actin Filaments/ MicrofilamentFunction in pseudopods of amoeboid cells
Actin Filaments/ MicrofilamentPinch mother cell in two after animal mitosis
Actin Filaments/ MicrofilamentImportant component in muscle contraction (other is myosin)
Actin Filaments/ Microfilamentplay an important role in cell motility (movement), such as the crawling of a white blood cell in your immune system.
Intermediate FilamentsIntermediate in size between actin filaments and microtubules
Intermediate FilamentsRope-like assembly of fibrous polypeptides
Intermediate Filamentsmaintain the shape of the cell and anchoring the nucleus and other organelles in place
Intermediate FilamentsSupport nuclear envelope
Intermediate FilamentsCell-cell junctions, like those holding skin cells tightly together
Intermediate FilamentsStability and shape
MicrotubulesHollow cylinders made of two globular proteins called a and b tubulin
MicrotubulesSpontaneous pairing of a and b tubulin molecules form structures called dimers
MicrotubulesDimers then arrange themselves into tubular spirals of 13 dimers around
MicrotubulesInteracts with proteins kinesin and dynein to cause movement of organelles
Microtubuleshelping the cell resist compression forces
Microtubulesassemble into a structure called the spindle, which pulls the chromosomes apart.
CentriolesOne pair per animal cell
CentriolesMay give rise to basal bodies of cilia and flagella
CentriolesPaired structures near nucleus
CentriolesMade of bundle of microtubules
CentriolesAppear during cell division forming mitotic spindle
CentriolesHelp to pull chromosome pairs apart to opposite ends of the cell
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Eukaryotic Cells 2

 

Question Answer
Cilia and FlagellaHair-like projections from cell surface that aid in cell movement
Endomembrane SystemThe regulates protein traffic and performs metabolic functions in the cell
Endomembrane SystemSeries of intracellular membranes that compartmentalize the cell
Endomembrane SystemRestrict enzymatic reactions to specific compartments within cell
Endoplasmic ReticulumA system of membrane channels and sacs (flattened vesiclescisternae) continuous with the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope
Endoplasmic Reticulumhalf the total membrane in many eukaryotic cells
Endoplasmic Reticulumfolding and transport of various proteins, specifically carrying them to the Golgi apparatus and some other proteins, mostly the glycoproteins, move across the ER's membrane
Endoplasmic ReticulumER occurs in almost every type of eukaryotic cell except red blood cells and sperm cells.
Rough Endoplasmic ReticulumStudded with ribosomes on cytoplasmic side and they are the series of flattened sacs(cisternae)
Rough Endoplasmic ReticulumProtein anabolism
Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumSite of various synthetic processes, detoxification, and storage
Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumSynthesis of lipids
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulumdecreases the surface area for the storage of key enzymes and the products of these enzymes.
Smooth Endoplasmic ReticulumForms transport vesicles (tubule network)
ER Functionresponsible for the transportation of proteins and other carbohydrates to another organelle, which includes lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, plasma membrane, etc.
ER Functionvital role in the formation of the skeletal framework.
ER Functionprovide the increased surface area for cellular reactions.
ER Functionhelp in the formation of nuclear membrane during cell division.
ER Functionvital role in the synthesis of proteins, lipids, glycogen and other steroids like cholesterol, progesterone, testosterone, etc
Plant Cellsacts as a port for the entry of proteins into the membrane.
Plant Cellsbiosynthesis and storage of lipids and proteins.
Plant Cellsadditional function involves cell to cell communication between specialized cells oil body biogenesis and lipid storage
Plant Cellsconnected between the cells via the plasmodesmata
Animal Cellsmanufacturing, processing and transporting different types of chemical compounds
Animal Cellsprovides the pipeline between the nucleus and the cytoplasm of a multifunctional organelle, which synthesis the membrane lipids, proteins and also regulates the intracellular calcium
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Eukaryotic Cells 3

 

Question Answer
the lipids and proteins in the transport vesicles need to be sorted, packaged, and tagged so that they wind up in the right placeWhen vesicles bud off from the ER, where do they go?
This sorting, tagging, packaging, and distribution takes place in the Golgi apparatus (Golgi body), an organelle made up of flattened discs of membraneWhen vesicles bud off from the ER, where do they go?
Golgi ApparatusConsists of 3-20 flattened membrane (cisternae),curved saccules
Golgi ApparatusResembles stack of hollow pancakes
Golgi ApparatusModifies proteins and lipids
Golgi Apparatusproteins and lipids- short chains of sugar molecules might be added or removed, or phosphate groups attached as tags
Golgi Apparatusmodified proteins are sorted (based on markers such as amino acid sequences and chemical tags) and packaged into vesicles that bud from the trans face of the Golgi.
Golgi ApparatusSome vesicles deliver their contents to other parts of the cell where they will be used, such as the lysosome or vacuole.
Golgi ApparatusOthers fuse with the plasma membrane, delivering membrane-anchored proteins that function there and releasing secreted proteins outside the cell.
LysosomesMembrane-bound vesicles (not in plants)
LysosomesContain powerful digestive enzymes and are highly acidic
Lysosomescontains digestive enzymes and acts as the organelle-recycling facility of an animal cell
Lysosomesbreaks down old and unnecessary structures so their molecules can be reused.
Lysosomescan also digest foreign particles that are brought into the cell from outside.
Autophagylysosome breaking down damaged organelle
Vesiclessmall structures within a cell, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer involved in transport, buoyancy control, and enzyme storage
Vesiclesform naturally during the processes of secretion (exocytosis), uptake (phagocytosis) and transport of materials within the cytoplasm.
Vesiclescan fuse with the plasma membrane to release their contents outside the cell.
Vesiclesfuse with other organelles within the cell.
Vesiclestool used by the cell for organizing cellular substances
Vesiclesinvolved in metabolism, transport,buoyancy control, and enzyme storage.
Vesicleschemical reaction chambers.
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Eukaryotic Cells 4

 

Question Answer
VacuolesMembranous sacs that are larger than vesicles
VacuolesStorage of water, nutrients, pigments, toxins and waste products
Vacuoleswater balance
Vacuolessupports the expansion of the cell.
Vacuolesholds more water, the cell gets larger without having to invest a lot of energy in synthesizing new cytoplasm.
Contractile VacuoleFound in unicellular protists like paramecia
Contractile VacuoleRegulate water intake by pumping out excess (homeostasis)
Contractile VacuoleKeeps the cell from lysing (bursting)
PeroxisomeEnzymes synthesized by free ribosomes in cytoplasm (instead of ER)
PeroxisomeActive in lipid metabolism
Peroxisomehouses enzymes involved in oxidation reactions, which produce hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as a by-product
Peroxisomeenzymes break down fatty acids and amino acids, and also detoxify some substances that enter the body.
Peroxisomeare not part of the endomembrane system. That means they don't receive vesicles from the Golgi apparatus.
PeroxisomeProduce hydrogen peroxide and convert it to water
Chloroplast StructureMembranous organelles (a type of plastid) that serve as the site of photosynthesis
Chloroplast StructureCaptures light energy to drive cellular machinery
Chloroplast StructureOnly plants, algae, and certain bacteria are capable of conducting photosynthesis
GranaThylakoids in stacks
Stromagel like material surrounding thylakoids
ChloroplastsFound only in producers (organisms containing chlorophyll)
ChloroplastsUse energy from sunlight to make own food (glucose)
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Eukaryotic Cells 5

 

Question Answer
ChloroplastsEnergy from sun stored in the Chemical Bonds of Sugars
MitochondriaContain ribosomes and their own DNA
MitochondriaSurrounded by a double membrane; Inner membrane surrounds the matrix and is convoluted (folds) to form cristae.
MitochondriaInvolved in cellular respiration (burning glucose)
MitochondriaProduce most of ATP utilized by the cell
MATRIXInterior of mitochondria
CRISTAEFolded inner membrane
CRISTAE(increases surface area for more chemical Reactions
Microvilitiny, cylindrical process extending from the free surface of epithelial
MicroviliFolds in the cell membrane
MicroviliIncrease surface area for absorption of nutrients
CiliaSlender projections of the cell membrane
CiliaMove substances across surface of the cell
FlagellumSingle whip-like Projection
FlagellumUsed for cellular locomotion
Root Hair CellAbsorbs water and mineral salts from the surrounding
Red Blood CellTransport oxygen from lungs to all parts of the body
Xylem VesselSupports the plants
Xylem VesselTransports water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves
(1) Root hair cells, (2) RBC, (3) Xylem Vessel3 Examples of modification of cells
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Cell Cycle

Question Answer
Cell Cyclerepeating series of events that include growth, DNA synthesis, and cell division
Cell DivisionThe ability of organisms to produce more of their own kind-unique capacity to procreate
Rudolf VirchowWhere a cell exists, there must have been a preexisting cell is said by _____________
Cell Divisionprokaryotic cell reproduces an entire organism
Cell Divisionmulticellular eukaryotes to develop from a single cell, like the fertilized egg that gave rise to the two-celled embryo
Cell Divisionrenewal and repair, replacing cells that die from normal wear and tear or accidents
Cell Divisionpassing identical genetic material to cellular offspring
A typical human cell might take about 24 hours to divideHow long does the cell cycle take?
(1) Interphase, (2) Mitosis, (3) CytokinesisThree stages in the cell cycle
Interphasecell grows carries out normal functions.
Mitosisnucleus contents duplicated and divided into two equal parts
Cytokinesisseparation of two nuclei and cell contents into two daughter cells
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Cell Cycle 1

 

Question Answer
G1 PHASEusually 10 hours
G1 PHASEGrows rapidly
G1 PHASEmakes proteins needed for DNA replication and copies some of its organelles in preparation for cell division.
G1 PHASEcell typically spends most of its life in this phase
G1 PHASECell decides if it will start the cell cycle
G0 PhaseResting phase
G0 PhaseNon-dividing cells in multicellular eukaryotic organisms enter this phase from G1 (ex. Neurons)
G0 PhaseCells that are completely differentiated
G0 PhaseCellular senescence- DNA damage or degradation
Synthesis Phasecell’s DNA is copied in the process of DNA replication
Synthesis PhaseNucleus becomes larger with twice the amount of DNA
Synthesis Phaseduplicates centrosome- helps separate DNA during M phase
Synthesis Phasecell remains in a diploid state
Synthesis Phase5 to 6 hours
Synthesis PhaseSynthesize DNA
G2 PHASEshortened growth period
G2 PHASEthe cell makes final preparations to divide
G2 PHASE3 to 4 hours
G2 PHASEThis phase produces microtubules in mitotic spindle
M PhaseVery short and Observable phase in the microscope
M PhaseNuclear division-one nucleus divides and becomes two nuclei
M PhaseCytoplasmic division- cytoplasm divides in half, producing two daughter cells
cells might go from one phase to the next before they were readyWhat if we have no control of the Cell Cycle?
Regulatory proteinscontrols the cell cycle
Regulatory proteinsensure that the cell completes the previous phase before moving on
Regulatory proteinscontrol the cell cycle at key checkpoints
Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk)kinases, enzymes that phosphorylate (attach phosphate groups to) specific target proteins.
Checkpointsensure that the cell is ready to proceed before it moves on to the next phase of the cycle
G1 checkpointmakes the key decision of whether the cell should divide.
S checkpointdetermines if the DNA has been replicated properly
Mitotic spindle checkpointoccurs at the point in metaphase where all the chromosomes should have aligned at the mitotic plate.
Mitosisone cell (the mother) divides to produce two new cells (the daughters) that are genetically identical to itself
MitosisDNA of the cell's nucleus is split into two equal sets of chromosomes.
Mitosisreplaces old, worn-out cells with new ones
Mitosisform of reproduction, adding new individuals to the population.
(1) make more diploid cells by copying each chromosome, (2) each new cell gets its own copy of each chromosome2 Purpose of Mitosis
ChromosomesAs the nucleus prepares to divide, replicated DNA in interphase joins to form sister chromatids, joined by a centromere.
Chromosomes a thread-like object made of a material called chromatin.
Chromatinis made of DNA and special structural proteins called histones.
Histonesbeads on a string
Mitosisis the shortest stage of the cell cycle where the nuclear contents divide, and two daughter nuclei are formed.
(1) Prophase, (2) Metaphase, (3) Anaphase, (4) TelophaseMitosis occurs in 4 stages which are _______
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