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Bio Exam 2- study guide part 2

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michelleburkee2's version from 2015-10-02 23:23

Section 1

Question Answer
what is the function of the endomembrane system?it segregates molecules from the cytosol and ensures biochemical processes occur in an orderly fashion
endocytosisthe process whereby the plasma membrane extends and surrounds material just outside the cell, fuses and then pinches off to form a vesicle inside the cell.
a series of interconnected membranes that form a labyrinth of flattened sacs and channels within the cytoplasmEndoplasmic reticulum
exocytosisthe process wherevy the plasma membrane extemds amd surrounds material just outside the cell, fuses, and then pinches off to form a versitcle inside the cell
Rough endoplasmic reticulum is studded with ribosomes and produces proteins destined for other membranes or for secretion
Smooth endoplasmic reticulumhas no ribosomes, detoxifies drugs, and synthesizes lipids such as steroid hormones made from cholesterol.
It can synthesize more membrane for itself, for the Golgi complex, the cell membrane, lysosomes, and others smooth endoplasmic reticulum
serve as the cell's digestive systemlysosomes
functions of vacuolesmaintains water balance, stores hazardous wastes, nutrients, and pigments, and provides turgor pressure to keep cells rigi
contractile vacuoles: composed of collecting ducts, a central reservoir, and a tube leading to a pore in the plasma membrane that carries excess water out of the organism
what makes up 3/4 of a plant cell vacuoles
What do eukaryotic cells have to extract energy from food?mitochondria
What do prokaryotic cells have to capture energy?chloroplasts
In the prokarytotic cell, the outer membrane separates the organelle from the cytoplasm
In the prokaryotic cell, the _______ seperates the organelle from the cytoplasmouter membrane
The ________ in the Prokaryotic cell encloses the fluid stroma and contains stacked, hollow, membranous sacs (grana)inner membrane
The inner membrane of the Prokaryotic cell encloses the fluid stroma and contains stacked, hollow, membranous sacs (grana)
what is granamembrane sacs
The _______ contain the green pigment chlorophyll and other pigments, which capture sunlight and make sugar from CO2 and waterthylakoid membranes
the green pigament of plants which captures sunlight to make sugar from CO2 and waterchlorophyll
found only in plants and photosynthetic protistsplastids
They are surrounded by a double membrane and are storage containers for various molecules, such as pigments or starch*plastids*
The two major feautures of prokaryotic cellsProkaryotic cells are small and possess specialized surface features and Prokaryotic cells have fewer specialized structures within their cytoplasm
the three shapes that prokryotic cells can takeRod-shaped bacilli, Spiral-shaped spirilla, and Spherical cocci
the two types of polysacharide coatings that Bacteria secrete outside their cellscapsules and slime layers
are surface protein projections of the cell walls in some bacteria that enhance adhesionpili
In the central region of the Prokaryotic cell is an area called the nucleoid
within the nucleoid is a single, circular chromosome of DNA
Small rings of DNA and where are they locatedplasmids and in the cytoplasm
memorize

Section 2

Question Answer
What is the endosymbiont hypothesis?both mitochondria and chloroplasts were oringonally free living prokaryotic cells that developed a symbiosis with other cells
both mitochondria and chloroplasts are the size of _____ which lead us to believe _______prokaryotic cells.This leads us to believe that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once their own free prokaryotic cells before they formed a symbiosis with other cells.
both have what four things?a double membrane, enzymes to synthesize ATP, have DNA, and ribosomes
the sites of photosynthesischloroplasts
power house of the cellmitochondria
______ produce food from ______ and store it _____Mitochondria; molecules; in high energy bonds of ATP
anaerobicwithout oxygen
aerobicwith oxygen
energy production in mitochondria include ______ and ________ reactions.anaerobic and aerobic
folds that provide a large amount of surface area for chemical reactions to occur oncristae
The inner membrane of the mitochondria is folded into *cristae*
The intermembrane compartment lies between the _____ and _______ membranesthe inner and outer membranes
The matrix of the mitochondria is within the inner membrane
funtion of plastidsThey are surrounded by a double membrane and are storage containers for various molecules, such as pigments or starch
pili (prokaryotes)are surface protein projections of the cell walls in some bacteria that enhance adhesion (prokaryotes)
plastids are only found in plants and photosynthetic protists
memorize