Bio Exam 2 Study guide 6

michelleburkee2's version from 2015-10-07 12:43

Section 1

Question Answer
phospholipids are a)found in cell membranes b)completely hydrophillic c)completely hydrophobic d)made on the ribsomesa) found in cell membranes
if a cell contains large amounts of rough ER, then large amounts of protein hormones could be exported by the cell
fibers of the cytoskeleton are composed of primarilyproteins
what is the function of the plant cell vacuole?it stores water
A particular cell has the following molecules and structures: enzymes, DNA, ribosomes, plasma membrane, and mitochondria. It could be a(n)plant or animal cell
what is the pathway of information flow in the cellDNA->RNA->proteins
if red blood cells are taken from the body and placed in a hypertonic solution, what happens to the cells?the cells shrivel up because water leaves the cell and goes into the solution
What type of membrane protein is responsible for maintaining cell shape by linking the membrane with the cytoskeleton?connection proteins
osmosis moves water from a region oflow solute concentration to a region of high solute concentration
the main lipid found in cell membranes arephospholipids
the electrical charge for a muscle to contract passes rapidly from one cell to the next viagap junctions
imagine that beaker A has a 10% sucrose solution and beaker B has an 8% sucrose solution. That mean thatbeaker A is hypertonic to beaker B
what prevents your immune system from attacking your own cells?recognition proteins
you are conducting an expiriment on a yeast enzyme known as sucrose. This enzyme is used by yeast cells to break down sucrose into glucose and fructose. What type of reaction is this?exergonic
hydrolysisbreaks molecules apart
The hydrolosis of sucrose to glucose and fructose is a spontaneous reaction. However, if you dissolve sucrose in water and keep the solution over night at room temperature there is no detectable conversion to glucose and fructose. Why not?the reaction requires a catalyst to overcome activation energy
What does not have a lot of potential energy?A ball that has rolled downhill and stopped
A "high energy bond" in an ATP molecule is located betweentwo phosphate groups
why is protein synthesis considered an endergonic reaction?low energy reactants are converted to high energy products
A bacterium releases a toxin that blocks a channel protein in the membrane of cells that line the intestine. This toxin prevents the movement of sodium ions from inside of the intestines into cells. If the sodium ions could not move into the cells, how would this affect the movement of water between the inside of the intestine and cells?water would leave the cells and enter the intestines by osmosis.
what accounts for the fluid aspect of the fluid mosiac model of plasma membranes?the individual phospholipid molecules are not bonded to one another, so the movement of certain proteins and lipids are possible within the bilayer
Which of the following is an energy requiring mode of transport that brings substances into a cell: a)facilitated diffusion b)osmosis c)receptor mediated endocytosis d) simple diffusionc) recpetor mediated endocytosis
to say that a cell is selectively permable meansonly certain molecules can pass through
Which of the following types of membrane proteins are responsible for facilitated diffusion? A)transport proteins B)recognition proteins C)enzymes D)receptor proteins E)connection proteinsA)transport proteins
Energy that is not converted into useful energy is usually given off asheat
How are allosteric enzymes regulated?through feedback inhibition
When a high-energy bond of ATP is broken, what primarily happens to released energy?it drives endergonic reactions in the cell
In exergonic chemical reactions the _________ have more energy than the _________reactants have more energy than the products
Most reactions in the body occur too slowly to sustain life. This is becausemaby reactions require large inputs of activation energy
(true/false) enzymes provide energy for the reactions they catalyzefalse! they do not provide energy for the reactions they catalyze

Section 2

Question Answer
what type of cells have mitochondria?plant or animal cells
For many enzymes, the rate of product formation increases as teh concentration of the substrate increases. Eventually the rate of teh reaction reaches a maximum at which further increases in the concentration have no effect. Why??At high concentrations, all of the enzyme molecules are saturated bound to substrate molecules
The photosynthesis reaction is considered to be an endergonic reaction. True or false?true
The golgi apparatus packages materials into ______ to transport or exportvesicles
All cell possess all of these components:a cytoplasm, genetic material, a plasma cell membrane, and ribosomes
which primarily determines the shape of animal cells, which lack cell walls? A)nucleus B)cytsoplasm C)endoplasmic reticulum D)cytoskeleton E)ribsosomesD)cytoskeleton
What is a piece of evidence that mitochondria and chloroplasts were once free lving prokaryotic organisms?they contain their own DNA
Which of the following relationships is false?: A)cell wall support and protection B)chlrosoplasts-chief site of lipid synthesis C)nucleus-genetic info D)ribosomes-site of protein synthesis E)mitochondria-formation of ATPB)chloroplasts-chief site of lipid synthesis
The plasma membrane performs all of the following except A)regulating flow of materials into and out of the cell B)facilitating protein synthesis C)providing a barrier D)facilitating communication with other cellsB) facilitating protein synthesis
Where do most metabolic activities take place within the cell?the cytoplasm
What would happen if a cell stopped properly making functioning RNA? a)nothing the cell would function properly b)the cell would not be able to translate the information in protein into DNA c)the cell would not be able to translate the info in DNA into proteinc)the cell would not be able to translate the information in DNA into protein
if an organism has cilia, it most likely is a)a plant b)an animal c)linving in a dry environment d)living in a wet environmentd)living in a wet environment
A cell membrane is not formed properly-it is not able to act as a barrier to its environment. What may cause this problem? A)The ER is malfunctioning and cannot produce the proteins for the membrane B)The ER is malfunctioning and cannot produce the phospholipids and cholesterol for the membrane C)The mitochondria are malfunctioning and cannot produce the phospholipids and cholesterol for the membrane D)the chlorosplasts are malfunctioning and cannot produce the energy needed to move molecules across the membraneb) the ER is malfunctioning and cannot produce the phospholipids and cholesterol for the membrane
An ___ chemical reaction releases energy, whereas a _____ reaction requires an input of energyexergonic; endergonic
Why wouldn't the enzymes that breaks down maltose break down lactose as well?the enzyme that breaks down maltose has a specifically shaped active site and lactose wont fit
Active transport moves ______ their gradientagainst
why is having a high fever dangerous?the rise in temperature changes the shape of enzymes active sites, preventing the binding of specifically shaped substrates
in reference to diffusio, "passive" really meansno energy required
which of the following requires ATP? A)simple diffusion B)facilitated diffusion C)active tranpsort D)osmosisc) active transport
what type of cell junctions are needed for a tissue that must prevent fluids from leaking across its cell layer? a)desmosomes b)tight junctions c)gap junctions d)plasmadesmatab)tight junctions
Which of the following statements about enzymes is false: a)enzymes are proteins that function as biological catalyst b)enzymes are highly specific for molecules with which they react c)enzymes provide energy for the reactions they catalyze d)the activity of enzymes can be regulated e) an enzymes may be used many times for the same specific reactionc)enzymes provide energy for the reactions they catalyze
to say that an enzyme has been denatured means that a)an inhibitor has bound the enzyme at the active site b)the enzyme is working at its maximal rate c)the enzyme is broken down into amino acids and can no longer function properly d)the three dimensional structure has changed and the enzyme can no longer function properlyd) the three dimensional structure has changed and the enzymes can no longer function properly
the second law of thermodynamics contradicts the theory of evolution. True or false?false. because complex molecules with reduced entropy are created using energy from the sun

Section 3

Question Answer
which organelle takes up much of the volume of a plant cell?vacuole
which structure is not part of the endomembrane system: a)nucleaur envelope b)chloroplast c)golgi apparatus d)plasma membraneb)chloroplast
the liver is involved in detoxification of many posisons. Which of the following structures is primarily involved in this process and therefore, abundant in liver cells: a)rough ER b)smooth ER c)golgi apparatus d)nucleur envelopeb)smooth ER
which of the following produces and modifies polysacharides that will be secreted? a)lysosomes b)mitochondrion c)golgi apparatus d)perosisomec)golgi apparatus
white blood cells engulf bacteria usingphagocytosis
a bacterium engulfed by a white blood cell through phagocytosis will be digested by enzymes containted inlysosomes
all of the following are true about chromotin except: a)prepares DNA for mitosis and meiosis b)regualtes gene expression and DNA replication c)assists ribosomes in assembling proteins d)protects DNA from damagec)assists ribosomes in assembling proteins
which is not part of the endomembrane system: a)nucleolus b)golgi apparatus c)lysosomes d)vacuolesa)nucleolus
what is the pathway of modified proteins as they move through the cellribosoms-->ER-->golgi apparatus-->plasma membrane
the nucleur pore complex regulatesthe passage of proteins,pieces of ribosomes, and RNA
small rings of DNA called plasmids are located wherein the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cell
transport proteins regulate the movement of ______ molecules through the plasma membranehydrophillic