Bio Evolution Exam 4

mipabuyi's version from 2017-05-03 03:23

Section 1

Question Answer
Ethologythe study of behavior
What it apomixis? a form of asexual reproduction (cloning of parent) making an exact copy
What kinds of organisms can reproduce this way, what mechanisms?fussion( protus, bacteria) budding (plants, nideira)
What is automixis? a form of sexual reproduction where there is some recombination but one parent
Does automixis create exact copies of parents?there is some variety but not as much as in mitosis
Do bacteria reproduce sexually?no, but they can do it through horizontal gene transfer
How can we recognize sexually reproducing species?by looking at external things or genetic testing
Is there a way to do it genetically?yes by looking at phylogenys and is asexual they will match if seuxal the phylogeny will be different
promiscuoius no mating bond
How many times did sexual reproduction evolve?only once through eukaryotes early
How many times have different sexually reproducing lineages switched back to asexual reproduction?many many times
Over the long term is sexual or asexual reproduction a more successful strategy?sexual reproduction because they will continue reproducing and carrying on the name
How do we know? by looking at phylogenies seeing asexual rep is only on the tips of trees
What kinds of organisms reproduce through apomixismany but very common among plants
monogumousmating bond between each other is strong won't mate with others
polygynoussingle male and multiple females ( lions ,elephant seals)
polyandrussingle female and multiple males (bees)
polydyandrusmultiple males and females but only within unit

Section 2

Question Answer
Anisogamygamete formation where there is a great difference between gametes very recognizable egg and sperm
Isogamygamete formation where individual makes gametes (mitosis) sexually and all gametes are compatible with one another and are the same size
Which type of gametes do humans have?anisogamy
Five cost of sexcarrying males, energy expenditure, less combinations, exposure to diseases, exposure to predation
What is the overall benefit of sex? tons of variations, no new alleles, no new mutations, new combinations
the four specific benefits of sex and the examples discussed in classmullers ratchet, combine adaptive mutations, red queen hypothesis, respond to unstable enviorment
Are there some species that can reproduce both sexually and asexually? yes (water flees and plants)
What is the benefit of being able to do so?you can do it if needed
what is an example of species that can reproduce sexuallyhumans
what is an example of species that can reproduce asexuallyplants bacteria nideria
Carrying Males(greatest) only half of population can bear young reduces number of young and its harder to grow population
less combinationsless combinations
extra energy expenditure finding the mate and mating
increased risk to diseasesby partner sexually etc.
exposure to predationmating calls, bright colors, exposed
mullers ratchetsexual reproduction combine small population, small mutations more frequent, they get weeded out so they can become fixed
combine adaptive mutationsoffspring will get more beneficial traits
red queen hypothesisall of diversity keeps up with evolution that is occurring in parasites (biological comp) organism evolves
répond to instable enviornmentable to reproduce asexually or sexually in spatial or temporal times if need be

Section 3

Question Answer
Intersexual Selection any sort of natural selection that occurs between sexes (color, song, mating dance)
Direct Benefitsfemale gets direct boost from male, food, fitness, protection, help with offspring
Good Genes Honest Signalsfemale knows which males are healthy by calls that cannot be faked
Runaway Selectionmakes males push to extremes (widow birds)
Sensory Bias when females prefer certain traits before they develop
How could we determine whether sensory bias was present in a group of species with different behaviors?by looking at phylogenies (experimental determination)
Direct Male-Male Competitionfighting (male species) big horn sheep budding heads gorillas etc.
Indirect Male-Male Competitionsneaker males, allow to act like females to get in
Why is sexual selection most often strongest on males?because they have the unlimited resource of gametes sperm
Sperm Competitionform of competition between males from blocker or killer sperm
Sexual Arms Racetrait in male, toxic sperm they become stronger in sex and one may benefit one or the other(fitness benefit)
What causes Sexual Arms Racedifference in antagonistic evolution fitness benefits
Is it possible to end this type of antagonistic coevolutionyes, by so much pressure where it becomes extinct, or stable strategy where we can't push it any farther, or becomes negative and reaches a balancing point
IntRAsexual Selectionmales fighting eachother of the same species

Section 4

Question Answer
How many times did sex evolve?only one early eukaryotes, but asexual forms were reverted later
What are the two lines of evidence?we map it on a phylogeny, the final details of mitosis are similar
Alteration of Ploidya strong alteration of generations, one part of the life is haploid and one half is diploid
How did this work as a stepping stone towards sexual reproduction?if you are dividing DNA in half, recombining it like mitosis
Parasexualityintermediate step between asexual and sexual reproduction
What group still does this? (Parasexuality)Fungi
How is it different than true sexual reproduction?instead of doubling or copying it then reduction, there is fusion through chromosome inactivation then reduction but no doubling
What are the three factors that make anisogamy (males and females) seem to be inevitable? 1there needs to be variability in gamete size ( a few larger and small)
What are the three factors that make anisogamy (males and females) seem to be inevitable? 2there needs to be a difference in how many gametes are produced( small produce more, larger produce less)
What are the three factors that make anisogamy (males and females) seem to be inevitable? 3large zygotes together will do well (but its rare), one small and big will do alright, two small will do bad

Section 5

Question Answer
Cooperationmutually beneficial behavior of tow individuals of same species
What is the difference between cooperation and mutualism?cooperation (is within species) and mutualism (between species)
How do we define inclusive fitness?including all levels of fitness that have impact of all species (imdv, pop, species, group, gamete)
Eusocialitywhen there is a strong division of reproduction labor
What are some groups that have eusocial species? ants, wasp, bees, termites, arthropods, and one mammal the naked mole rat
Why are the hymenoptera such a good group to study the evolution of eusociality?there are all sorts of variations either eusocial or completely, females are mostly related to eachoteher (.75%)
Evolutionarily Stable Strategy Look at the vampire bat exampleany strategy that they are all balanced at all levels to help the group
How does reciprocation facilitate the evolution of cooperative behaviors?they either see or hear ( you help me ill help you) the behavior is going to evolve
Group Selectiondiff between group fitness and individuals fitness ( group will do better if they have something better)
How do evolutionary biologists explain the seeming paradox of free-riders? some sort of group selection, needs social reinforcement, if not it will break up the group
What does population structure have to do with this?it needs to be a small group for it to work

Section 6

Question Answer
Conflict among non-kin often reaches an ESS.what is best for the individual is whats best for the group. They will test but not fight because they will need each other
What are some of the conflicts that can arise between parents and offspring? cost of health (lifespan)
What are some of the resulting behaviors?infanticide, cannibalism, abandonment
What about between siblings?fighting, killing, or pushing away so they can get selected
Meiotic Driveat genetic level, conflict of different alleles. pre zygotic before it is formed
Be able to explain why signals are important in organismal interactionsthey are signaling for fitness and intent (to benefit)
What keeps signals honest? fitness level, if it is very costly (size, color, etc.)
what don't we understand so much ofsocial reinforcement, and cost

Section 7

Question Answer
Coevolutionwhen tow different species have tightly bound together and the evolution of one has affected the evolution of the other
Mutualism when two different species both benefit from interaction (bees/plants)
commensalismwhen only one species is benefited but the other is not affected or helped
antagonismwhen one species is affected and the other is not (host/parasites, predator/ prey)
Cospeciationwhen one group spectates the other will too (parasite split up but chancge with species)
When is cospeciation most likely to occur?when there is strong coevolution
What is meant by the term “cheating” when referring to coevolving mutualistic species? when you are holding back on your resources to your partner
What keeps cheating in checkyou will not benefit from this you will be affected as well (rhizome NO2 fert. released )
Review the antagonistic coevolution examples (clam and snail, host parasite)stronger muscles in clams
how this can lead to a coevolutionary arms race (antagonistic coevolution)if there is a differential difference between what is good for the male or the female
Batesian Mimicrywhen there is a mimic and model. The model gets negative feedback and the model gets protected (toxic)
Mullerian Mimicry 2 species looking the same but they will adapt to survive both benefit
What types of relationships do these forms of mimicry represent?
Mosaic Coevolutioncombination of all above in different species but they can vary across geography and time (complex relationship
Cultural Transmission they can be passed off like genes they can be learned. Not genetic. They learn how to be different like culture if need be
Does culture undergo evolution? yes it can, influenced outside or within if they don't like it
How do genes affect the evolution of culture?only in complex systems, orca teaching offspring what to eat

Section 8

Question Answer
ProximateThe immediate cause of disease (ex. flu in resp tract)
Developmentalhow the disease came about (explaining something was infected them got in mucous membrane etc. )
Evolutionarydeeper meaning. We have evolved with it and it evolves in a way that is best for it
Phylogeneticeven deeper meaning. Historical meaning why some species have disease. Family tree tells history
three examples of evolutionary explanations for diseasechanging environments and time, limitations, evolution
How does the coevolutionary arms race apply to humans and their pathogens? the virus does whats better for itself, it evolves to stay alive and get you sick but no to sick that it will die either
How has our use of antibiotics changed this arms race among bacteria? DRAMATICALLY, we get infected at a younger age so we can not be affected later in life, but the wrong way they will get immuned
What effect does this arms race have on the phylogenies of different types of viruses?whether or not the virus confers a life long immunity (evolution of flu in body)
Review the three explanations for senescencetrade off for speed, no selection on post reproduction, trade off for reproduction
Antagonistic pleiotropywhen a gene has a positive and negative job (more offspring but not enough time to get ready)
What is the oldest living organism?trick question there is none
changing environments and timehiv in humans, the moved environments and got infected by chimps
limitationsphysical laws want one thing but we go against it (ex. knee injuries due to evolution)
evolution does not care about youit is doing what is beneficial to itself (dying, but better for pop
trade off for speedyou reproduce quick but have short lifespan (fruit flies)
no selection on post reproductionafter reproduction mutations on self will no affect next generations
trade off for reproductionif you get old you won't be able to reproduce as much or any