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Bio. Evo. Exam Review Exam #1

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mipabuyi's version from 2017-05-05 16:22

Section

Question Answer
1. Evolution is a change in a(n) __________________. biological population
2. Select the best example of change caused by a transformational process.A mutation in a single Staphylococcus bacterium allows it to resist the most effective antibiotic prescribed by doctors.
3. Which of the following is not an example of the three basic types of change that can cause biological evolution?a.*A mutation in the skin cell of a human causes an area of lighter pigmentation. b. Natural selection in a species of lizard based on the fitness of individuals with different phenotypes. c. New mutations in HIV that allows it to circumvent the human immune system. d. Genetic drift removing random diversity from a beetle species.
4. Variational processes __________________ the diversity of a population.decrease
5. The US Supreme Court has ruled that creationism should not be taught in public schools. These rulings have centered around two main arguments: the non-scientific (non-falsifiable) nature of creationism and ___________________.separation of Church and State
6. Gao Gao is a Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) that lives at the San Diego Zoo. Which of the following organisms share a common ancestor with Gao Gao? (mark all that apply)a. Polar Bear b. Red Panda c. Racoon d. Willow Tree e. Mushroom
7. A hypothesis is __________________________.basically an informed guess about how the physical world around us works
8. The earth was created by a supernatural being during six 24 hour periods about 6000 years ago. The preceding description best fits which type of creationism?Young Earth Creationism
9. Theodosius Dobzhansky "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution."
10. Lamarck“All known living bodies are sharply divided into two special kingdoms, based upon the essential differences which distinguish animals from plants, and in spite of what has been said, I am convinced that these two kingdoms do not really merge into one another at any point.”
11. Charles Darwin "As many more individuals of each species are born than can possibly survive; and as, consequently, there is a frequently recurring struggle for existence, it follows that any being, if it vary however slightly in any manner profitable to itself, under the complex and sometimes varying conditions of life, will have a better chance of surviving, and thus be naturally selected.”
12. Thomas Malthus “The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to produce subsistence for man.”
13. Stephen Gould “I believe, with all my heart, in a respectful, even loving, concordat between the magisteria of science and religion . . .”
14. Which of the following events had a great impact on Charles Darwin and his ideas regarding the mechanism of evolutionary change in populations?Darwin was the naturalist on the HMS Beagle and observed a wide variety of wildlife on the Galapagos Islands that were somewhat similar to mainland species and yet definitely different species.
15. Nodes on a phylogeny represent the common ancestors of the species at the tips of the branches.True
16. What is the scala naturae?A hierarchical system that attempts to organize life on earth based on its complexity, with simple organisms at the bottom and more complex organisms at the top.
17. What scientific theory are Charles Lyell and James Hutton most closely associated with?Uniformitarianism
18. Why did it take so long to unite the ideas of Mendel and Darwin?Mendel’s work was not recognized as valuable and important until the 20th century.
19. What is the “green revolution” and which prediction has it allowed us to postpone?Modern agricultural methods. Thomas Malthus’ prediction regarding population growth increasing much more quickly than resources to support that population.
When newly formed a rock has 64 ug per kg of a radioactive element an ancient sample of the same rock only has 4 ug per kg of that same radioactive element. If the half-life of this element is 100 million years, how old is the ancient rock? 400 million years
21. Using the diagram below and the provided information, how old is the rock layer labelled with the star?More than 90 million years old
22. What evidence supports the endosymbiosis hypothesis? (mark all that apply)b. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have a double membrane. c. Genes in both the mitochondrion and chloroplast are more closely related to bacterial genes than to any eukaryotic genes. e. Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genome
What were the first organisms on earth to perform photosynthesis? e. Single-celled, prokaryotes similar to today’s cyanobacteria
24. Origin of Life on Earth a. 3.5 billion years ago b. Relative dating of fossils in sedimentary rocks
25. Cambrian Explosion c. 540 million years ago b. Relative dating of fossils in sedimentary rocks
26. Origin of Photosynthesis d. Rate at which the stars are moving away from us a. Dramatic increase in the oxides found in sedimentary rocks
27. Which of the following analyses is least likely to exhibit tokogeny (also known as reticulation)?c. Phylogeny of modern bat species
28. Extinct species can be included on phylogeniesTrue
29. Artificial selection requires the use of modern tools that allow us to genetically modify organismsFalse
30. Which of the following is an example of convergent morphological features?The wings of a pterosaur and the wings of a bat
31. An outgroup allows us to ______________________________________.determine how a group of interest is connected to the rest of life on earth
36. A trait that has lost its original function, but is still present in an organism as an unused remnant is known as ______________.vestigial
37. Which of the following two biological processes would be likely to cause homoplasy in a phylogenetic analysis? Loss of a morphological trait among a small sub group of the most recent common ancestor who had that trait. b. Convergence of morphological traits due to selection for similar environmental conditions.
41. Which of the following evolutionary events in the therapod dinosaurs was critical for the origin of flight?Transition to a bipedal gait
42. Which of the following is the function of bird feathers that most likely evolved first? Display
43. Which of the following is the closest extant relatives of the birds?Crocodile
44. Which of the following groups is represented by species that are found on earth today? (mark all that apply) b. Synapsids c. Dinosaurs d. Lepidosaurs
Below is an image of Indohyus major, an extinct early ancestor of whales. It doesn’t look very whale-like, so what evidence is there to support this relationship?a. Their inner ear bones have a distinct shape that is characteristic for whales
46. Conodontsb. Some of the earliest vertebrates, they were jawless and had very little hard tissue other than their teeth
47. Ammonitesc. Close relatives of modern squid, they had a shell and were very common in the Mesozoic oceans.
48. Placoderms a. These were the earliest jawed fish.
49. Trilobites d. Marine arthropods that were very numerous throughout the Paleozoic era.
50. What is the sister-taxon for the tetrapod vertebrates?d. Lobe-finned fish (Sarcopterygians)
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