BIO - Circulatory System

baejuhyeoned's version from 2018-01-10 20:59


Question Answer
Circulatory systemis to transport materials throughout the body toward and away from particular target organs and tissues.
(1) Blood, (2) Blood vessels, (3) Heart three main features of circulatory system
Open & closedTwo kinds of circulatory system for animals
Open circulatory system fluid is circulated through an open body chamber. (ANIMAL)
Closed circulatory system fluid is circulated through blood vessels. (ANIMAL)
Hemolymphis contained in a body cavity, the hemocoel.
OPENArthropods and most mollusks have ____circulatory system
CLOSEDVertebrates, annelid worms, and a few mollusks have _______ circulatory system.
Bloodmoved through blood vessels by the heart’s action.
BloodIt does not come in direct contact with body organs.
CLOSEDHumans have _______ circulatory system
Less efficient in moving oxygen to body tissues.Why does an open circulatory system limit body size?
(1) Pulmonary & (2) SystemicTwo Pathways
Pulmonary CirculationCarries blood to lungs and back to the heart
Systemic CirculationCarries blood to body and back to the heart
(1) Water, (2) Red Blood Cells, (3) Plasma, (4) White blood cells, (5) PlateletsBlood consists of (5)
PlasmaLiquid portion of the blood.
PlasmaContains clotting factors, hormones, antibodies, dissolved gases, nutrients and waste
Red blood cells/ ErythrocytesMake up about 99% of the blood’s cellular component.
Red blood cells/ Erythrocytes_________ lose their nucleus at maturity.
HemoglobinRed color is of blood is due to _________
Hemoglobin is a complex protein made up of four protein strands, plus iron-rich heme groups
FOUREach hemoglobin molecule can carry ____ oxygen atoms
FOURRBCs live about _____ months.
Erythropoeitinstimulates the production of RBCs in red bone marrow.
You will make fewer because there is less iron to make hemoglobin.If your diet is poor in iron, what will happen to your RBCs?
White blood cells/ Leukocytesdefend against disease by recognizing proteins that do not belong to the body.
White blood cells/ Leukocytesare able to ooze through the walls of capillaries to patrol the tissues and reach the lymph system.
Platelets/Thrombocytesare cell fragments used in blood clotting.
Platelets/Thrombocytesare derived from megakaryocites. Because they lack a nucleus, platelets have a short lifespan, usually about 10 days.
Red cellsWhich blood cells transport oxygen?
CLUMPINGIf you mix one type with the wrong one, you get __________
Plasmacontains proteins that correspond to the shape of the different antigens
Type Ois the universal donor
Type ABis the universal acceptor
Rh+have antigen
Rh-NO antigen
(1) Arteries and arterioles, (2) Veins and venules, (3) CapillariesBlood vessels fall into three major classes:
Arteriescarries blood Away from heart
Arteriesare thick-walled, and lined with smooth muscle.
Arterioles branch off of arteries
Arterioles can constrict to direct and control blood flow. They may, for example, increase or decrease blood supply to the skin.
Capillariesallow exchange of nutrients, wastes and gases.
VeinsCarries blood to heart
Venuleslarger than capillaries
Venules are thin-walled collectors of blood.
Always carry blood away from the heart.What is always true of arteries?
Arteries must withstand very high blood pressure when the heart contracts.Besides having to constrict to move blood, why are artery walls so thick and strong?
To allow exchange of gases and nutrients.Why are capillary walls so thin?
(1) Atria & (2) VentriclesVertebrate hearts are separated into two types of chambers:
Atria receive blood from body or lungs. Contractions of the atria send blood through a valve to the ventricles.
Ventriclesreceive blood from atria, contract to send blood to body or lungs.
Two-chambered heartThe simplest vertebrate heart is the ___________
Four-chambered heartseen in birds and mammals, allows complete separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood.
Right ventriclecontracts and pushes oxygen-poor blood toward lungs, against gravity, through pulmonary arteries
Left ventricle contracts and forces oxygen rich blood • out of heart through • aorta (largest vessel)
The sinoatrial (SA) node is nervous tissue that times heart beats.
The SA node auses atria to contract, and sends the signal to the atrioventricular (AV) node to signal the ventricles to contract.
Systolic pressurepressure when the heart contracts.
Diastolic pressurepressure between heart beats
Right atrium, right ventricleWhich set of heart vessels moves deoxygenated blood from the body to the lungs? 1 2 3 4 25% 25
Diastolic pressure – heart is relaxedIf your blood pressure is 90/70, the 70 represents:
Plasmacontains proteins that correspond to the shape of the different antigens

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