hasanahatesscience's version from 2018-02-28 04:10


Question Answer
Isotopea form of an element that differs in its number of neutrons
Radioisotopea radioactive isotope of an element
Ionic Bonda bond that results from the attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or molecules
Cationan ion that has a positive charge
Anionan ion that has a negative charge
Electronegativitythe measure of an atom’s attraction to shared electrons
Polaritypartial negative or positive charge at the ends of a molecule
Intermolecular forcethe force of attraction between two molecules
Van der Waals forcesvery weak attractions between two molecules, or parts of the molecules, when they are close together
Hydrogen Bondsthe attractive force between a partially positively charged hydrogen atom and a partially negatively charged atom in another molecule
Dehydration reactiona chemical reaction in which subunits of a larger molecule are joined by the removal of water; also called condensation reaction
Hydrolysis reactiona chemical reaction in which water is used as a reactant to split a larger molecule into smaller subunits
Neutralization reactiona reaction in which an acid and a base combine to create a salt and water
Redox reactionan electron transfer reaction
Hydrophilicpolar or charged molecules that are strongly attracted to water
Hydrophobicnon-polar molecules that are not strongly attracted to water
Buffera chemical that compensates for pH changes in a solution by accepting or denoting H+ ions
Carbohydratea biomolecule that consists of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen
Monosaccharidethe simplest form of carbohydrate, consisting of a single sugar unit, a building block for more complex carbohydrate
Isomera molecule that has the same composition as another but a different arrangement of atoms
Disaccharidea carbohydrate molecule that is made from two monosaccharide units
Glycosidic bonda bond between two monosaccharides
Complex carbohydratea molecule that is composed of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides linked together; an essential part of nutrition and a valuable energy source
Polysaccharidea molecule that contains many linked monosaccharides
Polymerizationa process in which small subunits are linked to form a large molecule
Monomera small molecule that can bind chemically to other molecules
Polymera large molecule that is formed when monomers linked together in a chain
Triglyceridea fat; three fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol molecule
Saturated fata lipid that is composed of saturated fatty acids with single bonds in their hydrocarbon chain
Unsaturated fata lipid that is composed of unsaturated fatty acids with double bonds in their hydrocarbon chain
Phospholipida lipid that consists of fatty acids and a phosphate group bound to glycerol
Steroida lipid that is composed of four carbon rings
Waxa lipid that is formed when long fatty acid chains are joined to alcohols or carbon rings
Proteina large molecule that consists of many amino acid subunits that are joined together by peptide bonds folded into a specific three dimensional shape
Nucleic acida blueprint for proteins that are synthesized in cells; stores hereditary information
Amino acida molecule that contains a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer subunit of proteins
Peptide bonda covalent bond that links amino acids
Peptidea chain of amino acid subunits that are connected by peptide bonds
Polypeptidea peptide with more than 50 amino acids
Denaturationthe loss of both the structure and function of a protein
Nucleotidea building block of nucleic acids, consisting of 5-carbon sugar, a nitrogenous base, and one to three phosphate groups
Phosphodiester bonda link that is formed between nucleotides by a phosphate bridge
Antiparallelorientated in opposite directions
Substratea substance that is recognized by and binds to an enzyme
Active sitea pocket or groove in an enzyme that binds to its substrate
Induced fit modela model of enzyme activity that describes how an enzyme changes shape to better accommodate a substrate
Competitive inhibitiona situation in which a competitor substance binds to a normal substrate binding site to block enzyme activity
Noncompetitive inhibitiona situation in which molecules bind to an enzyme at a site that is not the active site, thus blocking enzyme activity
Allosteric sitea binding site on an enzyme that binds regulatory molecules
Allosteric regulationthe regulation of one site of a protein by binding to another site on the same protein
Feedback inhibitionthe regulation of a pathway by one of the products of this pathway
Passive transportthe movement of a substance across a membrane without expending energy
Dynamic equilibriumthe state in which continuous action in balanced conditions
Facilitated diffusiontransport of ions and polar molecules through a membrane via protein channel
Active transportthe movement of substances across membranes against their concentration gradient using pumps

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