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Bio ch10b study

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emmajohnson's version from 2015-04-29 17:56

Section

Section

Question Answer
Describe how DNA and genes are stored in the nucleus of the cell.DNA is stored by tightly winding around itself and some specialized proteins. The resulting structure is called a "chromosome", which is found in the nucleus of the cell.
Describe the parts of a chromosome.Sister Chromatids - two identical copies of the chromosome. During cell division all the DNA of each chromosome is replicated. They eventually separate to become a full chromosome.

Centromere - the central region of the chromosomal structure. It's where the two sister chromatids are joined to each other.

DNA - Each chromosome contains a long linear molecule of DNA and there's more than two metres of it in each one. So for it to be able to fit it's tightly wound around histone proteins.

Telomeres - repetitive DNA sequences that are situated at the tips of chromosomes (the repeated sequence reads - TTAGGG). Telomeres protect the ends of the chromosomes from damage and stop them from becoming attached to each other. They shrink after every cell division.
Compare and contrast homologous chromosomes and sister chromatids.A couple of homologous chromosomes are a set of one maternal chromosome and one paternal Homologous chromosomes are chromosome that pair up with each other inside a cell during meiosis. These copies have the same genes in the same locations, or loci. A sister chromatid refers to either of the two identical copies (chromatids) formed by the replication of a single chromosome, with both copies joined together by a common centromere. In other words, a sister chromatid may also be said as 'one-half' of the duplicated chromosome.
Compare and contrast how mitosis is used by single-celled and multicellular organisms.In unicellular organisms such as bacteria, mitosis is a type of asexual reproduction, making identical copies of a single cell. In multicellular organisms, mitosis produces more cells for growth and repair.
List the phases of the cell cycle and describe briefly what happens in each.In mitosis interphase which includes G1, S, G2, mitosis which includes PMAT, then cytokinesis.
List the phases of mitosis and briefly describe the events of each phase.prophase-chromosome duplication,
metaphase-individual chromosomes line up at metaphase plate,
anaphase-sister chromatids separate,
telephase-daughter cells of mitosis 2n and 2n
Describe the roles of centrioles and microtubules in cell division.A centriole is a small set of microtubules arranged in a specific way. There are nine groups of microtubules. When two centrioles are found next to each other, they are usually at right angles. The centrioles are found in pairs and move towards the poles (opposite ends) of the nucleus when it is time for cell division.

Microtubules are filamentous intracellular structures that are responsible for various kinds of movements in all eukaryotic cells. Microtubules are involved in nucleic and cell division, organization of intracellular structure, and intracellular transport, as well as ciliary and flagellar motility.
Compare and contrast cytokinesis in animal cells & plant cells.Plant cells form a cell plate (cellulose) that separates the two new cells. Vesicles containing building materials fuse with one another to form the disklike cell plate between the two new cells. In animal cells, a cleavage furrow on the outer surface indicates that two new cells are forming.
Contractile microfilaments pull the plasma membrane inward.
Describe the genetic make up of cells produced by the process of mitosis.produces two exact copies of the original cell. This means that each daughter cell will have the same number of chromosomes, the same genetic code and, ultimately, the same function and characteristics as the original cell. Mitosis occurs in non-sex cells, since sex cells, such as eggs and sperm, must have only half the genetic material of the original cell. Sex cells are made through a different form of cell division called meiosis.
Compare and contrast oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.An oncogene is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer. In tumor cells, they are often mutated or expressed at high levels. Most of the normal cells will undergo a programmed form of rapid cell death (apoptosis) when critical functions are altered.

A tumor suppressor gene, or antioncogene, is a gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer. When this gene mutates to cause a loss or reduction in its function, the cell can progress to cancer, usually in combination with other genetic changes.
Define cancer, benign tumor, malignant tumor and metastasis.Metastasis, or metastatic disease, is the spread of a cancer or disease from one organ or part to another not directly connected with it. The new occurrences of disease thus generated are referred to as metastases
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Question Answer
Compare and contrast diploid and haploid cells.any cell with 2 chromosomes sets is called a diploid cell abbreviated 2n, cells that contain a single set of chromosomes abbreviated n
List and briefly describe the phases of meiosis I and meiosis II.PMAT PMAT
Describe the cells produced by the process of meiosis.x
Describe the process of crossing over and identify when in meiosis it occurs.occurs during prophase I, duplicated homologs pair up and the formation of the synaptonemal complex between them holds them in synapsis.
Explain how independent assortment, crossing over and random fertilization contribute to genetic variation in sexually reproducing organisms.x
Describe why meiosis is an important mechanism in maintaining chromosome number.x
Distinguish between asexual & sexual reproduction.x
Indicate where in the human body meiosis occurs.x
Describe the differences in gamete formation between males and females.x
Compare and contrast key differences between mitosis and meiosis and how the products differ.x
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Compare the relationships between phenotype and genotype, dominant and recessive alleles of a gene, and homozygote and heterozygote genotypesAlternate title: homozygous allelhomozygote, an organism with identical pairs of genes (or alleles) for a specific trait. If both of the two gametes (sex cells) that fuse during fertilization carry the same form of the gene for a specific trait, the organism is said to be homozygous for that trait. In a heterozygous organism, or heterozygote, the genes for a specific trait are different.
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Because genes may be either dominant or recessive, the genetic composition (genotype) of an organism cannot always be determined by the physical appearance (phenotype).
Diagram a monohybrid or dihybrid genetic cross using capitol & lowercase letters to symbolize two alleles of a gene, and use a Punnett square to keep track of all possible offspring. :x
Use the rule of multiplication to determine probability of an offspring with a particular genotype when you are given more than three traits to cross. :x
Describe how incomplete dominance, co-dominance, multiple alleles, epistasis and the environment act to alter phenotypes. :x
Explain the experimental rationale behind the classical testcross. :x
Construct and interpret a pedigree chart. Determine the genotypes of individuals. :x
Differentiate between the cell surface antigens of each blood type in the ABO system and indicate all possible phenotypes and genotypes. :x
Determine the probability that a person who is a carrier for a genetic mutation will pass it along to their offspring. :x

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Describe the chromosome theory of inheritance. :x
Identify what attributes of a trait make it sex linked. :x
Compare and contrast X linked and Y linked traits. :x
Using a Punnett square, demonstrate how sex linked traits are inherited. Determine the
probability of any male or female child inheriting a particular sex linked trait. :x
Describe the process of X inactivation and identify in which sex this occurs. :x
Compare aneuploidy and polyploidy and how these abnormal chromosome numbers
affect the cell. :x
Compare and contrast the different types of alteration to chromosome structure
(duplication, inversion and translocation). :x
Describe the results of somatic aneuploidy and sex chromosome aneuploidy in humans :x
Describe what gene linkage tells us about genes. :x

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Question Answer
Define: genome, genomics, proteomics.A genome is an organism's complete set of DNA, including all of its genes. Each genome contains all of the information needed to build and maintain that organism. In humans, a copy of the entire genome—more than 3 billion DNA base pairs—is contained in all cells that have a nucleus. Genomics is a discipline in genetics that applies recombinant DNA, DNA sequencing methods, and bioinformatics to sequence, assemble, and analyze the function and structure of genomes (the complete set of DNA within a single cell of an organism). Proteomics is the large-scale study of proteins, particularly their structures and functions.
Identify the purpose of mapping genes.Among the main goals of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to develop new, better and cheaper tools to identify new genes and to understand their function. One of these tools is genetic mapping. Genetic mapping - also called linkage mapping - can offer firm evidence that a disease transmitted from parent to child is linked to one or more genes. Mapping also provides clues about which chromosome contains the gene and precisely where the gene lies on that chromosome. Genetic maps have been used successfully to find the gene responsible for relatively rare, single-gene inherited disorders such as cystic fibrosis and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Genetic maps are also useful in guiding scientists to the many genes that are believed to play a role in the development of more common disorders such as asthma, heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and psychiatric conditions.
Identify the groups involved in the Human Genome Project.X
Compare clone-by-clone sequencing and shotgun sequencing.used to sequence very large amounts of DNA (such as an entire genome), is shotgun sequencing. In this shotgun sequencing, the DNA is first shredded into smaller fragments which can be sequenced individually. The sequences of these fragments are then reassembled into their original order, based on overlaps, ultimately yielding the complete sequence.
Identify the results of the human genome project including: the number of genes discovered, the percentage of DNA containing genes, and function of the discovered genes.X
Describe what ELSI is and the role this group played in the Human Genome Project.X
Define SNP and transposon. Identify how these attributes of the genetic code cause differences between individuals and how they affect the functions of genes.X
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Question Answer
Differentiate between cell division and cell differentiation.x
Describe what happens in cell determination.x
Compare and contrast totipotent, pluripotent and multipotent cells.Totipotent means capable of developing into a complete organism or differentiating into any of its cells or tissues (all genes can be expressed. is before embryonic development These are cells early on in development with the highest flexibility. Pluripotent is not fixed as to development potentialities, esp capable of differentiating into one of many cell types ie stem cells occurs after embryonic development stem cells are pluripotent. multipotent are adult stem cells ie have to become bone marrow they are something more specific.
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Question Answer
Define homeotic genes.any of a group of genes that control the pattern of body formation during early embryonic development of organisms. These genes encode proteins called transcription factors that direct cells to form various parts of the body.
Describe how homeotic genes and the homeobox are used to drive development of the embryo.x
Decribe how C. elegans has been used to track cell linages in development.x
Compare and contrast reproductive and therapeutic cloning.x
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Discuss the outcomes of different cells undergoing morphogenesis in the embryo. :x

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Question Answer
What is (and is not) mitosis?Mitosis is nuclear division plus cytokinesis, and produces two identical daughter cells during prophase, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase is often included in discussions of mitosis, but interphase is technically not part of mitosis, but rather encompasses stages G1, S, and G2 of the cell cycle.
Mitosis InterphaseThe cell is engaged in metabolic activity and performing its prepare for mitosis (the next four phases that lead up to and include nuclear division). Chromosomes are not clearly discerned in the nucleus, although a dark spot called the nucleolus may be visible. The cell may contain a pair of centrioles (or microtubule organizing centers in plants) both of which are organizational sites for microtubules.
Mitosis ProphaseChromatin in the nucleus begins to condense and becomes visible in the light microscope as chromosomes. The nucleolus disappears. Centrioles begin moving to opposite ends of the cell and fibers extend from the centromeres. Some fibers cross the cell to form the mitotic spindle.
Mitosis PrometaphaseThe nuclear membrane dissolves, marking the beginning of prometaphase. Proteins attach to the centromeres creating the kinetochores. Microtubules attach at the kinetochores and the chromosomes begin moving.
Mitosis MetaphaseSpindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus. This line is referred to as the metaphase plate. This organization helps to ensure that in the next phase, when the chromosomes are separated, each new nucleus will receive one copy of each chromosome.
Mitosis AnaphaseThe paired chromosomes separate at the kinetochores and move to opposite sides of the cell. Motion results from a combination of kinetochore movement along the spindle microtubules and through the physical interaction of polar microtubules.
Mitosis TelophaseChromatids arrive at opposite poles of cell, and new membranes form around the daughter nuclei. The chromosomes disperse and are no longer visible under the light microscope. The spindle fibers disperse, and cytokinesis or the partitioning of the cell may also begin during this stage.
Mitosis CytokinesisIn animal cells, cytokinesis results when a fiber ring composed of a protein called actin around the center of the cell contracts pinching the cell into two daughter cells, each with one nucleus. In plant cells, the rigid wall requires that a cell plate be synthesized between the two daughter cells.
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