Bio 4 Exam- Most of Chapter 34 Nutrition

michelleburkee2's version from 2016-04-19 21:24

Section 1

Question Answer
nutrients definitionsubstances obtained from the ENVIRONMENT that organisms need for growth and survival
6 categories of nutrientsvitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and water
3 nutrients that supply energycarbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
what nutrient that supplies energy takes up most of our daily nutrition? which takes up the least?most-carbohydrates, least-proteins
what does digestion do?breaks down nutrients into their subunits. These subunits are used to generate ATP for cellular respiration
without ________ cells would die within minutesenergy
subunits of carbohydratesglucose
subunits of proteinsamino acids
subunits of lipidslipids
calorie definitionthe amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree celcius
an average human burns how many calories/hour at rest?70 calories/hour
metabolic ratethe speed in which cellular reactions occur
muscle massmuscle burns more calories/hour than fat does
exercise habitsexercise significantly boosts caloric requirements
food intakeit takes dofferent times to burn off different foods
do all humans burn the same amount of calories per hour? Why or why not?no. It depends on metabolic rate, muscle mass, exercise habits, and food intake
3 main types of polysachariescellulose, starch, and glycogen
major structural component of plant cell wallscellulose
principle energy-storage material of plants (i.e. potatoes)starch
used by animals for short-term energy storageglycogen
where is glycogen stored in animals? (2 places)the liver and the muscles
sucrosecompromised of glucose
polysacharidesare compromised of long chains of sugar (glucose)
what are the most concentrated energy source?fats and oils
if diet provides too much energy then it is stored as fat
fat is (hydrophobic or hydrophillic)hydrophobic. They cannot dissolve in water
carbs are (hydrophobic or hydrophillic)hydrophillic. they can dissolve in water
proteins are (hydrophobic or hydrophillic)hydrophillic. they can dissolve in water
stores more calories with less weight a.)carbs b.)proteins c.)fatsc.) fats
provide insulation for animals in the coldfat deposits
act as enzymes and receptors on cell membranes and antibodiesproteins

Section 2

Question Answer
_________ contain 2 times more calories than carbs and proteinsfats and oils
stored fat cannot accumulate water becausefat is hydrophobic
fats store _____ calories with ______ weightstore more calories with less weight
humans evolved to (eating habits) and how this has led to obesity todayhumans evolved to have a strong tendency to eat when food is available in order to store it for later. An unlimited access to food has led to excess amounts of fat
body mass index (BMI)tool for estimating "healthy" weight based on height and weight
what is a healthy BMI?between 18.1 and 24.9
what is an obese BMI?equal or greater than 30
essential nutrients provideraw materials for health
cells can synthesize more required molecules in the body, but cells cannot synthesize certain essential nutrients
raw materials that must be supplied in diet: (5)some fatty acids, some amino acids (10/20), minerals, vitamins, and water
fats and oils are a source of energy and provide us with essential fatty acids
fatty acids function (4)absorbing fat-soluble vitamins, cell division, fetal development, and immune responses
examples of sources of fatty acidsfish oils, canola oil, soybean oils flaxseed, and walnuts
what are the building blocks of proteins?amino acids
how many amino acids are there20
functions of protein (6)form muscle, connective tissue, nails, hair, and act as enzymes and receptors on cell membranes and antibodies
how many amino acids can humans not synthesize?10
how are amino acids obtained that are essential nutrients?we must obtain them from our diet. Digestion breaks down protein that we eat into its amino acid subunits for use.
essential amino acidsamino acids that cannot be synthesized and must be obtained through diet
examples of sources of proteinmeat, milk, eggs, corn, beans, and soybeans
protein deficency exampleKwashiokor (African child with big belly)
elements required by the bodyminerals
teeth and bone developmentcalcium, magnesium and phosphorus
required for oxygen binding to hemoglobin in the bloodiron
thyroid hormonesiodine
muscle contraction and nerve impulses sodium, calcium and potassium
phosphorus role in bodymaintain pH of body fluids. bone and tooth formation. components of ATP and of phospholipids in membranes
potassium role in bodyhelps maintain pH and osmotic strength of body fluids, important for nervous system activity
chlorine role in bodyhelps maintain pH and osmotic strength of body fluid, component of HCl produced by gastric glands, important in nervous system activity
magnesium role in bodyteeth and bone development, helps activate many enzymes
fluorine role in bodycomponent of teeth and bones
zinc role in bodyimportant in enzymes, component of proteins, required for normal growth, smell, and taste
chromium role in bodyhelps maintain normal blood glucose levels
where are vitamins a and b filtered out bythe kidneys

Section 3

Question Answer
vitamins are important inmetabolism
vitamins defa diverse group of organic molecules that we cannot synthesize but are necessary for cell function, growth, and development
vitamins are essential nutrients which meansthe body cannot synthesize them so they must be obtained in the diet
2 categories of vitaminswater soluable and fat soluable
water soluable vitamins includevitamin c and the 8 compounds of vitamin 8 complex
vitamin c and vitamin b dissolve in watery blood and are filtered out by kidneys
are water soluable vitamins stored in large amounts?no
act as coenzymesvitamin c and vitamin b
coenzymes definitionwork with enzymes during chemical reactions
vitamin B deficiency Pellagra. swollen tongue and skin lesions
vitamin C deficiency Scurvy. easy bruising, bleeding, and tooth loss
fat soluable vitamins include (4)vitamin A, D, E, and K
fat soluable vitamins defcan be stored in fat and accumulate in body over time
Vitamin A functionused to synthesize light-capturing molecules in eye
Vitamin D functionused to synthesize energy from the sun in the skin. Needed for calcium absorption
Vitamin E functionantioxidant--> neutralizes free radicals (which are bad)
Vitamin K functionregulate blood clotting
Vitamin D deficencyrickets (bone deformeties)
Vitamin A deficencynight blindness (lack of light capturing molecules)
Vitamin K deficiency problems with blood clotting
what makes up 60% of the human body?water
all metabolic reactions occur withina watery solution
involved in many break down reactions (hydrolysis)*water*
water is a principle component of saliva, blood, lymph, and cytosol of cells
sweatthe evaporation of water to avoid overheating
urineprimarily water; necessary to eliminate cellular waste
digestion defprocess of physically grinding up food and chemically breaking it down into molecules that can be absorbed by cells
digestive systemconsists of compartments where food is processed and organs aid in digestion
4 functions of the digestive systemtakes in food, breaks down food (from complex molecules to simpler), absorbs nutrients, and expels leftover wastes from body
all digestive systems perform 5 tasks:ingestion, mechanical digestion, chemical digestion, absorption and elimination

Section 4

Question Answer
ingestionfood brought in via opening (usually mouth)
mechanical digestionfood physically broken down allowing digestive enzymes to work more efficently
chemical digestiondigestive chemicals and enzymes break down large food molecules into simpler subunits
absorptionsmall subunits transported out of digestive tract via cells lining tract to blood for body cells to use
eliminationindigestible materials expelled from body
spongeslack a digestive system
lack a digestive system relies on intercellular digestion
what is intercellular digestionall digestion occurs within individual cells
intercellular digestion examplewater in, food filtered, food into food vacuole, lysosomal digestion, waste expelled, uneaten food expelled
sea anenomesa gastrovascular cavity
example of sea anenome hydra
animals with a gastrovascular cavitychamber for digestion to occur outisde the cells. extracellular digestion. single opening. food in--> waste out
gastrovascular cavity examplecapture prey in mouth, digestive enzymes secreted into gastrovascular cavity, cell engulf food particles, waste out same opening
higher animal digestiona one way tube mouth to anus with specialized regions within the tube to process food.
higher animal digestion exampleeat food; grind up food; enzymatic break down; absorption of nutrients; expell wastes
why is the digestive system of the hydra inefficent?if you eat often it is not efficent because there is only one opening for food intake and waste expullsion
who was the higher animal digestive systemworms and vertebrates