Bio 303 final vocab (some)

jopokohu's version from 2015-12-09 22:59

Section 1

Question Answer
adaptive radiationprocess in which organisms diversify rapidly into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.
ecological opportunityenvironmental conditions that both permit the persistence of a lineage within a community, as well as generate divergent natural selection within that lineage.
key innovationa novel phenotypic trait that allows subsequent radiation and success of a taxonomic group.
background extinctionthe standard rate of extinction in earth's geological and biological history before humans became a primary contributor to extinctions.
mass extinctiona widespread and rapid decrease in the amount of life on Earth
hominidthe group consisting of all modern and extinct Great Apes (that is, modern humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and orangutans plus all their immediate ancestors).
homininHominin – the group consisting of modern humans, extinct human species and all our immediate ancestors (including members of the genera Homo, Australopithecus, Paranthropus and Ardipithecus).

Section 2

Question Answer
Sahelanthropus Earliest hominin ancestor?, extinct hominine species that is dated to about 7 million years ago, possibly very close to the time of the chimpanzee–human divergence. It is unclear whether it can be regarded as a member of the Hominini tribe.
AustralopithecusEarliest hominin ancestor? an extinct genus of hominids. Lucy's species, lived in eastern Africa between about 3.85 and 2.95 million years ago. Small brain, (Large molars, no shearing crest, powerful jaws)
Ardipithecuslived in eastern Africa ~4.4 mya, walked erect, small brain cases, projecting faces
Paranthropusslightly bigger brains, projecting faces, bigger teeth, big jaws and sagittal crest (stronger chewing mechanisms (Small brain, Large molars, no shearing crest, powerful jaws)
Homoearly humans, bigger brain cases, flatter faces, stone tools, larger brain, molar and jaw reduction, shearing bite
Neanderthallived ~400K - 30K years ago in Europe and western Asia
Denisovanfossils from the Altai Mountains of Russia. Not human, not Neanderthal, but traces of their DNA in some southeast Asians.