Bio 2

shadiam's version from 2015-05-01 04:34


Question Answer
anterior pituitaryFSH, LH, ACTH, TSH, prolactin, endorphins, GH
posterior pituitaryoxytocin & ADH
prolactin inhibiting factordopamine, released by hypothalamus
positive feedback loop hormoneoxytocin
thyroidcalcitonin by parafollicular/C cells, T3 and T4 by follicular cells
T3 and T4iodination of Tyr to for triidothyrone (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
effect of T3 and T4basal metabolic rate; increase energy production efficiency and cell respiration, decrease TRH and TSH
calcitonindecrease plasma Ca; increases Ca secretion by kidneys, decreases Ca absorption by guyt, increases Ca storage in bone
parathyroid glandssecrete parathyroid hormone which is antagonist to calcitonin
side effect of PTHactivates vitamin D cofactor in absorption of Ca and phosphate in the gut but also stimulates phosphate excretion by kidney so no effect on PO4 levels
adrenal glandsmedula secretes sympathetic hormones, cortex secretes corticosteroids
corticosteroidsglucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, cortical sex hormones (sugar salt sex)
glucocorticoidsregulate glucose levels and protein metabolism
2 types of glucocorticoidscortisol and cortisone which increase gluneogenesis and protein synthesis and decrease inflammation and immunity responses
mineralcorticoidsaldosterone increases salt reabsorption, water follows, increased BP and CO and K and H+ excretion
how does adrenal cortex secrete aldosterone?kindey baroreceptors activate renin which converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I which is converted to Ang II by ACE in the lungs which stimulates the adrenal cortex to release aldosterone
cortical sex hormonesandrogens and estrogens
adrenal medulla secretesnorepinephrine (parasymp) and epinephrine (symp)
pancreas secretesglucagon, insulin, somatostatin
pancreas partsislets of Langerhans, alpha releases glucagon, beta releases insulin, gamma releases somatostatin
where else does somatostatin come from?hypothalamus, where it inhibits growth hormone secretion
pineal gland releasesmelatonin
kidney releaseserythropoetin, which increases RBC production in bone marrow
heart releasesatrial natriuretic peptide; lowers BP and volume by increasing water and salt excretion
thymus releasesthymosin, which helps T cell development and differentiation