Bio 103 Vocab Ch. 1 and 2

coreyrules132's version from 2015-08-28 02:51


Question Answer
The process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its early beginnings to the diversity of organisms living todayEvolution
The scientific study of lifeBiology
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystemsBiosphere
All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; one or more communities and the physical environment around themEcosystem
All the organisms that inhabit a particular area; an assemblage of populations of different species living close enough together for potential interactionCommunity
A group of individuals of the same species that live in the same area and interbreed, producing fertile offspringPopulation
Individual living thingsOrganisms
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functionsOrgan Systems
A specialized center of the body function composed of several different types of tissuesOrgans
An integrated group of cells with a common structure, function, or both Tissues
Life's fundamental unit of structure and functionCells
Any of several membrane enclosed structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytosol of Eukaryotic cellsOrganelles
Two or more atoms held together by covalent bondsMolecules
A type of cell with a membrane enclosed nucleus and organellesEukaryotic Cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane enclosed nucleus and organelles Prokaryotic Cell
A nucleic acid molecule, usually double stranded helix, in which each polynucleotide strand consist of nucleotide monomers with a deoxyribose sugar and the nitrogenous basesDNA
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNAGene
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism's or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequencesGenome
The use of computers, software, and mathematical models to process and integrate biological information from large data setsBioinformatics
An organism that produces organic compounds from CO2 by harnessing light energy or by oxidizing inorganic chemicals Producer
An organism that feeds on producers, other consumers, or nonliving organic materialConsumers
The regulation of a process by its output or end productFeedback Regulation
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traitsNatural Selection
The search for information and explanation, often focusing on specific questionsInquiry
Recorded observationsData
A testable explanation for a set of observations based on the available data and guided by inductive reasoningHypothesis
A type of logic in which generalizations are based on a large number of specific observationsInductive Reasoning
A type of logic in which specific results are predicted from a general premiseDeductive Reasoning
A scientific test, carried out under controlled conditions, involving manipulation of one or more factors in a system in order to see the effects of those changesExperiment
A variable whose value is manipulated or changed during an experiment or other test to reveal possible effects on another variableIndependent Variable
A variable whose value is measured during an experiment or other test to see whether it is influenced by changes in another variableDependent Variable
An explanation that is broader in scope than a hypothesis, generates new hypotheses and is supported by a large body of evidenceTheory
A particular species chosen for research into broad biological principles because it is representative of a larger group and usually easy to grow in a labModel Organism
The application of scientific knowledge for a specific purpose, often involving industry or commerce but also including uses in basic researchTechnology
A scientific discipline concerned with naming and classifying the diverse forms of lifeTaxonomy
Anything that take up space and has massMatter
Any substance that cannot be broken down to any other substance by chemical reactionsElement
A substance consisting of two or more different elements combined in a fixed ratioCompound
A chemical element required for an organism to survive, grow and reproduceEssential Elements
An element indispensable for life but required in extremely minute amountsTrace Elements
The smallest unit of matter that retains the properties of an elementAtom
A subatomic particle having no electrical charge Neutron
A subatomic particle with a single positive electrical charge Proton
A subatomic particle with a single negative electrical chargeElectron
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique for each element and designated by a subscriptAtomic Number
The total mass of an atomAtomic Mass
The sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleusMass Number
One of several atomic forms of an element, each with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons, thus differing in atomic massIsotopes
The amount of time it takes for half of a sample of radioactive isotope to decayHalf life
The capacity to cause change, especially to do work Energy
The energy that matter possesses as a result of its location or spatial arrangement Potential energy
An energy level of electrons at a characteristic average distance from the nucleus on an atomElectron Shells
The outermost energy shell of an atom containing the valence electrons involved in the chemical reactions of that atomValence Shells
An electron in the outermost electron shellValence Electrons
The three dimensional space where an electron is found 90% of the timeOrbital
An attraction between two atoms, resulting from a sharing of outer shell electrons or the presence of opposite charges on the atomsChemical Bonds
A type of strong chemical bond in which two atoms share one or more pairs of valence electronsCovalent Bond
The attraction of a given atom for the electrons of a covalent bondElectronegativity
A type of covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of similar electronegativityNonpolar Covalent Bond
A covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. The shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom, making it slightly negative and the other atom slightly positive Polar Covalent Bond
An atom or group of atoms that has gained or lost one or more electrons Ion
A positively charged ionCation
A negatively charged ionAnion
A chemical bond resulting from the attraction between oppositely charged ionsIonic Bond
A compound resulting from the formation of an ionic bond Ionic Compound
A type of weak chemical bond that is formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule or in another region of the same moleculeHydrogen Bond
Weak attractions between molecules or parts that result from transient local partial chargesVan der Waals Interactions
A starting material in a chemical reaction Reactants
A material resulting from a chemical reactionProducts
In a chemical reaction, the state in which the rate of the forward reaction equals the rate of the reverse reaction, so that the relative concentrations of the reactants and products do not change with timeChemical Equilibrium