Bio 103- Chapter 16 and 17 vocal

coreyrules132's version from 2015-11-05 20:13


Question Answer
The process by which DNA directs protein synthesisGene Expression
Highly condensed chromatinHeterochromatin
Loosely packed chromatinEuchromatin
DNA is precisely combined within proteins in a complex Chromatin
Eukaryotic chromosomal DNA molecules have special nucleotide sequences at their endsTelomeres
Cuts out and replace damaged stretches of DNANuclease
Catalyzes one end of the DNA fragment to the end of another fragmentDNA Ligase
The lagging strand is synthesized as a series of segments which are joined together by DNA ligaseOkazaki Fragments
To elongate the other new strandLagging Strand
The new DNA strand synthesized continuously along the template strand toward the replication forkLeading Strand
An enzyme that catalyzes the elongation of new DNA at a replication forkDNA polymerase
An enzyme that can start an RNA chain from scratch and adds RNA nucleotides at one time using the parental DNA as a templatePrimase
The initial nucleotide strandPrimer
Corrects "overwinding" ahead of replication forks by breaking, swiveling and rejoining DNA strandsTopoisomerase
Enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication forkHelicases
A "Y" shaped region where new DNA strands are elongatingReplication fork
Where the two DNA strands are separated Origins of replication
Predicts that when a double helix replicates each daughter molecule will have one old strand from the parent and one newly made strandSemiconservative model
A virus that infects bacteria Bacteriophages
A change in genotype and phenotype due to assimilation of foreign DNATransformation
The process by which a DNA molecule is copiedDNA replication
A mutation loss of one or more nucleotide pairs from a geneDeletions
A mutation involving the addition of one or more nucleotide pairs to a geneInsertions
Insertions or deletion of nucleotides may alter the reading frameFrameshift Mutations
Change an amino acid codon into a stop codonNonsense mutations
Still code of an amino acid but no the correct amino acidMissense mutations
Chemical changes in just one base pair of a genePoint mutations
Changes in the genetic materialMutations
Multiple ribosomes can translate a single mRNA simultaneously Polyribosomes
RNA molecules that, together with protein, make up ribosomesRibosomal RNA
A nucleotide triplet at one end of a tRNA molecule that base pairs with a complementary codon on mRNAAnticodon
A cell translates as mRNA message into proteinTransfer RNA
Catalytic RNA molecules that function as enzymes and can splice RNARibozymes
Consist of a variety of proteins and several small nuclear ribonucleoproteins that recognize the splice sites Spliceosome
A sequence within primary transcript that remains in the RNA after RNA processingExon
Noncoding regions are called intervening sequencesIntron
Removes introns and joins exons creating an mRNA moleculeRNA Splicing
A promoter that is crucial in forming the initiation complex in eukaryotesTATA box
Mediate the binding of RNA polymerase and the initiation of transcriptionTranscription factors
The stretch of DNA that is transcribedTranscription unit
The sequence signaling the end of transcriptionTerminator
The DNA sequence where RNA polymerase attachesPromoter
Pries the DNA strands apart and joins together the RNA nucleotidesRNA Polymerase
The mRNA base triplets are read in the 5' to 3' directionCodon
One of the two DNA strands provides a template for ordering the sequence of complementary nucleotides in an RNA transcriptTemplate Strand
A series of non overlapping three- nucleotide wordsTriplet code
The site of translationRibosomes
The synthesis of a polypeptide using info in the mRNATranslation
The synthesis of RNA using info in DNATranscription
What transcription producesMessenger RNA

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