Bio 102 Exam 4 rest of chapter 34

michelleburkee2's version from 2016-04-20 19:27

Section 1

Question Answer
vertebrate digestive systems are specialized forspecific diets
carnivores examplewolves, cats, seals, and predatory birds
herbivores exampleseed-eating birds, grazing animals (i.e. deer, camels, and cows), and many rodents
omivores examplehumans, bears, and raccoons
the four major parts of the vertebrate digestive systemmouth, esaphogus, small intestine and large intestine
omnivores teeththin, flat incisors for shearing off food, small canines, and good crushing molars
carnivores teethsmall incisors, enlarged canines to catch prey, sharp molars, and no teeth for grinding or chewing
herbivores teethlack canines, large flexible tongues, well-developed inscisors, large flat molars for grinding up plants
bird's stomachsgrind food because they do not have teeth they have a beak
how do birds eat their food?they swallow it whole
how many chambers does the bird have in their stomach and what are their functionsthey have 2 chambers. 1.) secrete enzymes 2.) gizzard: crushes and grinds food
digest cellulose with specialized stomachsruminants
examples of ruminantscows, sheep, camel, etc.
how many chambers of the stomach do ruminants have and what are theythey have 4 chambers. the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum
________ length is connected to dietsmall intestines
mechanical and chemical digestion begins in themouth
salivialubrication to help you swallow, antibacterial function to protect against infection, contains amylase and water
pharynxcavity that connects the mouth with esophogus. it is shared by the digestive system and respiratory system
epiglotisa flap of tissue that blocks respiratory passage and directs food into the esophogus while eating
the structure of the small intestinesinternal lining provides huge surface area for absorption
villitiny protrusions that cover the entire inner surface of the small intestines. the plasma membranes of the villi are lined with microvilli
what are the nutrients absorbed by the small intestineswater, minerals, vitamins, monosacharides, amino acids and short peptides, and fatty acids (special absorption to lymph vessels)
chylomicronfatty acids+cholesterol+fat soluable vitamins+proteins
how is chylomicron absorbedit is too big to fit through the walls of the capillaries but can diffuse from the intestinal cells into lymph capillaries called lacteals where they will then travel to the heart via the lymphatic system
lactealslymph capillaries
where is water absorbed and feces formed?in the large intestines
how does the large intestine absorb vitamin B12, thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin K?through the bacteria in the large intestine

Section 2

Question Answer
who has a gizzardbirds
ruminants digest ______cellulose with specialized stomachs
rumen chamber functionpartial digestion, microorganisms produce enzymes to break down cellulose
reticulum chamber functioncud formed, reguritated, re-chewed and re-swallowed (into rumen again)
omasum chamber functionwater, salts, and organic molecules absorbed
abomasum chamber functionenzymes secreted for protein digestion
in vertebrates most chemical digestion occurs in thesmall intestines
herbivores small intestineslong small intestines because their food is hard to digest
carnivores small intestinesshort small intestines because their food is easy to digest
function of amylase in saliviadigestive enzyme breaking starches (polysacharides) down into disacharides
function of water in saliviadissolves molecules for our taste buds
shared by the digestive system and respiratory systempharynx
muscular tube between pharynx and stomachesophagus
does any digestion happen in the esophagus?no
peristalsisrhythmic coordinated contractions of smooth muscle
muscular sac between the esophagus and small intestinesstomach
four functions of the stomachstores and releases food gradually into small intestines, produce churning contractions to break down food, begins protein breakdown from gastric glands, and secrete hormones to regulate digestive acivity
two rings of circular muscles that keep food in the stomachlower esophageal sphincter and pyloric sphincter
what are the gastric glands made out ofepitherlia tissue
what are the function of gastric glandsglands in the stomach lining that secrete into the stomach
3 types of gastric secretionsmucus, hydrochloric acid and pepsinogen
chymea thick acidic liquid that enters the small intestines from the stomach
three segements of the small intestinesduodenum, jejunum, and lleum
liver secretion into the small intestinesmakes bile to help lipases
lipases enzymes that digest lipids
gallbladder secretion into small intestinesstores and releases bile
pancreas secretion into small intestinesmakes sodium bicarbonate (basic) and digestive enzymes that work best in basic conditions
small intestine lining secretionsmakes enzymes for carb and protein digestion (ex. lactase)
liver-->gallbladder-->small intestines via bile duct
what does the stomach release into the small intestinesacidic chyme
pancreas-->small intestines via pancreatic duct
the final section of the digestive systemlarge intestine
what two parts make up the digestive systemthe colon and the rectum

Section 3

Question Answer
can obtain energy from plant celluloseruminants
order of ruminant digestionrumer--> reticulum-->rumen-->omasum-->abomasum
where does peristalsis occurthe esophagus
mucus function in stomachcoats stomach lining that prevents self-digestion
hydrochloric acid in stomachkeeps stomach pH between 1-3 (acidic)
pepsinogen in stomachinactive pepsin activated by acidicity.
pepsina protein digesting enzyme. turns proteins into amino acids
food can't leave stomach until it isconverted to chyme
duodenum in small intestinesreceives chyme, receives digestive enzymes from gall bladder and pancreas and secretes hormones to control digestion. Begins absorption
lleum in the small intestinesdigestion and nutrient absorption; empties into the large intestines
jejunum in the small intestinesdigestion and nutrient absorption
can the small intestines absorb polysacharides?no they absorb monosacharides
can the small intestines absorb amino acids?yes. they do not absorb whole proteins
what is absorbed in the lymph vessels?fatty acids
what 4 vitamins does the large intestine absorb?vitamin B12, thiamin, riboflavin and vitamin K
what 3 things does the large intestine absorb?vitamins, water, and salts
waste material remaining in intestines after absorptionfeces
abnormally slow movement through the large intestine and excess water absorbedconstipation
diarrheamaterial moves too quickly and little water is absorbed
what is digestion controlled by?the nervous system and hormones
what does it mean if you have low leptinyou are hungry
what does it mean if you have high leptinyou are not hungry
what does it mean if you have high ghrelinyou are hungry
what does it mean if you have low ghrelinyou are not hungry

Section 4

Question Answer
how do ruminants digest cellulosethey have bacteria in their stomach tha are able to break down cellulose through the enzyme
_________ receives chyme from stomach and completes chemical digestion and absorbs nutrients into bodysmall intestines
sight, smell, taste and thoughts of food trigger the hypothalmus
when hungry there is an increase in which two thingssalivation and stomach acid production
help regulate digestive activtityhormones
gastrinstimulates acid secretion to stimulae protein digestion
secretin and cholecystokinregulate chemical environment within the small intestines to promote optimal digestion and absorption
leptinpeptide secreted by fat cells. if low you are hungry
ghrelinpeptide secreted by stomach. if ghrelin is high you are hungry
salivary glandssecrete lubricating fluid and starch digesting enzymes
oral cavity, tongue, and teethgrind food and mix with salivia
pharynxshared digestive and respiratory passage
epiglotisdirects food down the esophagus
stomachbreaks down food and begins protein digestion
esophagustransports food to stomach. no digestion happens here
liversecretes bile
gallbladderstores the bile from the liver
pancreassecretes bicarbonate and several digestive enzymes
small intestinefood is digested and absorbed
large intestineabsorbs vitamins, minerals and water. houses bacteria and produces feces
rectumstores feces

Section 5

Question Answer
where is salivary amylase secretedfrom the salivary glands in the mouth
what is the function of salivary amylasebreaks down starch into disacharide sugars
what is the function of water and mucus in the mouthlubricates and dissolves food
where is pepsin secretedby the gastric glands in the stomach
function of pepsinbreaks down proteins into peptides
where is hydrochloric acid secretedby the gastric glands in the stomach*
the function of hydrochloric acidallows pepsin to work, kills some bacteria, aids in mineral absorption
what is the function of mucus in the stomachprotects the stomach from digesting itself
where are proteases madein the pancreas
what is the function of proteasesbreaks down peptides into smaller peptides and amino acids
where is bile createdin the liver
what is the function of bileemulsifies lipids
where is lipase madein the pancreas*
function of lipasebreaks down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol
where is sodium bicarbonate madein the pancreas**
function of sodium bicarbonateneutralizes the acidic chyme in the stomach
where are peptidases madein the small intestine
function of peptidasesbreaks down small peptides into amino acids
where are disacharides (sucrase, maltase and lactase) formedin the small intestine
function of disacharides (sucrase, maltase, lactase)split disacharides into monosacharides
function of mucus in the small intestineprotect the intestine from digestive secretions
where is pancreatic amylase formedin the pancreas
function of pancreatic amylasebreaks down starches into disacharides