Bio 102 Chapter 36

michelleburkee2's version from 2016-04-21 10:44

Section 1

Question Answer
microbes defmicroscopic living organisms
microbes 4 kindsbacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists
where do most of microbes livein the dirt
the majority of microbes that live in animal bodies arenot harmful. Many are beneficial
pathogens defmicrobes that cause disease
pathogens 2 typesbacteria and viruses
most microbacterial diseases have been with humans for thousands of years (i.e. chicken pox, measles)
leukocyteswhite blood cells
inate immune systemphagocytes and mast cells
phagocytes 3 kindsneutrophils, dendritic cells, and macrophanges
neutrophilswhite blood cells that engulf invading microbes
dendritic cellswhite blood cels that engulf invading microbes and present antigens to lymphocytes
macrophanges"big eater cells" that are WBC that engulf invading microbes and present antigens to lymphocytes
natural killer cellswhite blood cells that destroy infected or cancerous cells
mast cellsconnective tissue cells that release histamine
histamine important for inflamatory response
Adaptive Immune systemlymphocytes (form lymph)= B cells and T cells
humoral cellsB cells, memory B cells, and plasma cells
B cellslymphocytes that produce antibodies
memory B cellsoffspring of B cells that provide future immunity against invasion by the same antigen
plasma cellsoffspring of B cells that secrete antibodies into the blood stream
cell based cellsT cells (T cells, cytoxic T cells, helper T cells, memory T cells, and regulatory T cells)
T cellslymphocytes that regulate the immune response or kill infected or cancerous cells
cytoxic T cellsT cells that destroy infected body cells or cancerous cells
helper T cellsT cells that stimulate immune response by both B cells and cytoxic T cells
memory T cellsoffspring of cytoxic or helper T cells that provide future immunity against invasion by the same antigen
regulatory T cellsT cells that surpress immune attack against the body's own cells and molecules; important in preventing autoimmune diseases
3 defenses against pathogens nonspecific external barriers, nonspecific internal defenses, and specific internal defenses
what is the type of phagocyte that is mostly in areas in contact with the environmentdendritic cells

Section 2

Question Answer
what are lymphocytesB cells and T cells
nonspecific external barriersprevent pathogens from entering body. i.e. skin and mucous membranes
nonspecific internal defenses"innate immunity" (phagocytes and mast cells). internal defenses triggered by an invader.
example of nonspecific defensesfever and inflammation
specific internal defenses"adaptive immunity" (B cells and T cells). detects specific invaders (memory). humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity.
3 types of innate immune responses phagocytes, inflammation response, and fever response
3 types of phagocytesmacrophanges, neutrophils, and dendritic cells
what 3 things occur from the inflammatory responsepain causes protective behavior, causes blood clotting, and it attracts phagocytes to the area
allows phagocytes to leave capillaries and defendhistomine
what substance initiates a feverpyrogens
who makes pyrgoenscertain bacteria and phagocytic cells
infereonreleased by infected cells and stimulates natural killer cells
antibodiesproteins that recognize specific antigens
cytokinesmolecules that help with cell signalling and alarm
antimicrobial peptidesuefensiin in vertebrates
bone marrow in adaptive immunityproduction of white blood cells
spleen in adaptive immunityfilters blood, esposing microbes and old red blood cells to white blood cells
lymph nodes in adaptive immunitycontain masses of white blood cells and lymphocytes that destroy microbes in the circulating lymph
lymphatic system in adaptive immunityt cell development
tonsils in adaptive immunityring around the pharynx that detects microbes as they are coming in through the mouth
memory of the invader in adaptive immunityallows them to ward off future infections by the same type of microbe. will have a much faster and effective defense next time

Section 3

Question Answer
skin (non specific external barrier)dry, nutrient poor, poor habitat for bacteria
cilia and mucus(non specific external barrier)trap microbes and move them out of body
tears and salivia (non specific external barrier)contain antibacterial enzymes such as lysozyme
stomach (non specific external barrier)very acidic and contrains proteases
phagocytes innate immunityengulf (phagocytosis) and destroy invading pathogen or even the body's own cells if the viruses have infected them
inflammatory response innate immunityrecruits leukocytes to site of wound and walls of the injured area. isolates the infected tissue from the rest of the body
fever response innate immunityproduced when microbes start major infection in the body. Sows down microbial reproduction and enhances the body's own fighting abilities
phagocytic cells destroy invading microbes _____(specifically or non specifically)non specifically. They recognize features common to all invader types and engulf them via phagocytosis
macrophanges(5% of white blood cells) engulf bacteria and present antigens to lymphocytes
neutrophils(66% of white blood cells) engulf bacteria and fungi
dendritic cellsengulf bacteria and present antigens to lymphocytes (mostly in tissues in contact with the environment i.e. skin and nose)
inflammatory response causestissues to become warm, red, swollen, and painful. this defense mechanism initiates protective behavior because of pain, promotes blood clotting, and it attracts phagocytes to infected tissue
mast cellssense wounded cells and releases histomine which allows phagocytes to leave capillaries and defend
pyrogensproduced by certain bacteria and phagocytic cells. they travel to the hypothalmus and raise the body's thermostat which causes the fever
why are fevers beneficialthey slow down the bacterial reproduction, increases the activity of phagocytic white blood cells, causes cells of the adaptive immune system to mulltiply more rapidly, and causes cells infected with viruses to release infereon (stimulates natural killer cells)
adaptive immunitya specific and coordinated immune response against one particular pathogen with a memory stored for future invasions
humoral (body fluids aka antibody used) defend against pathogens ______ cellsdefense against pathogens floating outside cells
humoral cells are B cells
function of humoral cellssecrete molecules that aid in immune response i.e. antibodies, cytokines, and antimicrobial peptides
cell mediated cells defend against pathogens ________ cell.pathogens already inside cells
cell mediated cells areT cells
cell mediated cells functiondetect infected or defective cells and destroy them
adaptive immunity organsbone marrow, spleen, lymphatic system, lymph nodes, and tonsils
three steps of adaptive immune responses1.) lymphocytes (B and T cells) recognize invading microbe specifically 2.) they launch defensive measures and counter attack by either increasing the production of immune cells that can recognize and fight the intruder or by active destruction of the invading cells 3.) they retain memory of the invader