Bio 101 final chapter 24

michelleburkee2's version from 2015-12-15 06:21

Section 1

Question Answer
four key features of chordatesdorsal nerve chord, notochord, phalangeal gill slits, and post anal tail
when are chordate feautures best seen for humans?during embyronic development
are humans chordates?yes. humans embryos exhibit all four feautures of chordates. Only on chordate characteristic is present during adulthood
what chordate feauture is present during adulthood for humans?nerve cord
In human adults the notochord isreplaced by the backbone
in human adults the taildisappears
in human adults the gill slitsform the lower jaw
in human adults the nerve cordremains
the three clades of chordateslancelets, tunicates, and craniates
vertebrates def. animals in which the embryonic notochord is replaced during development by a backbone (vertebral column)
lancelets aremarine, filter feeders. they are small and fish-like.
how many chordate features do lancelts retain as adults4
how do lancelets eatthe cilia capture food particles and transports it to digestive tract
how do lancelets reproducethey have seperate sexes and reproduce sexually
are lancelets invertebrates of vertebrates?invertebrates
tunicates aresea squirts
are tunicates verebrates or invertebrates?*invertebrates*
how many features of chordates do tunicates have as adults2. they loose their tail and notochord
how do tunicates reproduce?sexually and asexually
craniatesinclude all chordates that have a skull that encloses a brain. skull composed of brain or cartilage
cartilagea tissue that resembles bone but is less brittle and more flexible
earliest craniates resembled ____ but had _____lancilets but had brain, skulls and eyes
two subgroups of craniateshagfishes and vertebrates
where do hagfish live?*in the ocean*
do hagfish have lungs?no they have gills
what type of heart do hagfish have?a two chambered heart
hagfish are ectothermic which means heat from the outside environment regulates body temperature
do hagfish have a backbone?they lack a true backbone. they are not a vertebrate
what is the chordate group most closely related to vertebrates?hagfish
what protects the nerve cord and brain?the backbone (vertebral column)
4 chordate adaptationsinternal skeleton, jaws, paired appendages, and increased size and complexity of brain and sensory structures
what are the five chordate fish like animals? (vertebrates)lampreys, cartiligous fish, ray-finned fish, coelacanths, and lungfish

Section 2

Question Answer
notochordsemi-flexible rod extending the length of the body; support for body and attachment site for muscles
support for body and attatchment site for musclesnotochord
when is the notochord present?during early stages of development. In vertebrates it becomes a backbone (vertebral column) by adulthood
what becomes the backbone in vertebrates by adulthood?*the notochord*
dorsal nerve cordlies above the digestive tract; runs along dorsal portion of body; forms the brain; filled with fluid
what forms the brain?*the dorsal nerve cord*
pharyngeal gill slitsin pharynx; from respiratory organs
post-anal tailcontains muscle tissue and rearmost portion of nerve cord
the rearmost portion of nerve cord*post-anal tail*
jawless suckerslampreys
do lampreys have a spinal cord?yes
where do lampreys live?in the water
how do lampreys feed?most are parasitic
do lampreys have teeth?*yes*
do lampreys have jaws?no
do cartilaginous fish have jaws?$yes$
what are three types of cartiligous fish?sharks, skates, and rays
what type of skeleton do cartiligous fish have?catiligous skeleton
what type of heart do cartiligous fish have?*2-chambered heart*
because sharks have no swim bladder, they cannot stop swimming or they will sink
what is the most diverse and abundant vertebrates?bony fishes
what are 2 examples of bony fishesray finned fish and lobe finned fish
what fish evolved into humans?*bony fish*
tetrapodshave limbs
descendants of bony fishtetrapods
what are 3 examples of ray finned fish?angler fish, moray eel, and sea horse
what are 2 examples of lobe finned fish?lungfish and coelacanth
what type of skeletons do ray finned fish have?$bony skeleton$
what type of hearts do ray finned fish have?#2 chambered heart #
do ray finned fish have a swim bladder?yes. they can float at any level
do cartiligous fish have a swim bladder?no. so they sink if they stop swimming
do lobe finned fish have cartilage skeletons?no. they have bony skeletons
do lobe finned fish have lungs or gills?they have both
where do lobe finned fishes live?they live in the water but can survive if water dries up by burrowing into the mud and sealing themselves in a mucus-lined chamber
what was thought to have gone extinct 65 million years ago?coelacanths
what are 3 examples of amphibians?frogs, toads, and salamanders
who made the first invasion on land?amphibians
what does it mean that amphibians have a double life?they begin their life in an aquativ environment and later live semi-terrestrial lives
what type of heart does an amphibian have?a 3 chambered heart. this provides more efficient blood circulation
how do amphibians reproduce?they reproduce sexually using external fertilization
6 examples of reptileslizards, snakes, alligators, crocodiles, turtles, and birds

Section 3

Question Answer
what type of environment do amphibians live in?moist
because amphibians have external fertilization itrequires water (sperm swims to eggs
what type of amphibian can regenerate lost limbs?salamanders
are snakes amphibians?no
are lizards amphibians?*no*
are alligators amphibians?&no&
are turtles amphibians?^no^
are birds reptiles?yes
are frogs amphibians?*yes*
are toads amphibians?&yes&
are salamanders amphibians?^yes^
what is the difference between an amphibian and a reptile?reptiles have amniotic eggs
where do reptiles live?on land
what have reptiles evolved from?amphibians
reptiles have more efficent ____ than amphibianslungs
what type of heart do reptiles have?3 or 4 chambered heart
what are the three adaptations that allow reptiles to live on land?tough scaly skin, internal fertilization, and shelled amniotic egg
birds are feathered reptiles
what are the four adaptations that allow birds to fly?lost many bones, reproductive organs shrink when not breeding, bones are lightweight, and have feathers
what type of heart do birds have?4 chambered heart
are birds endothermic or exothermic?endothermic. this means they maintain body temperature high enough to allow muscles and metabolic process to operate at peek efficency
do birds eat frequently or rarely?frequently
when did mammals diverify?when dinosaurs went extinct
what are the three glands specific to mammals?sweat, scent, and sebaceous
can reptiles sweat?no
what are the majority of mammals species?placental mammals
placental mammalsretain young in uterus for long periods of time, where they complete embryonic development before they are born
what are the largest groups of mamals?rodents
what are the only mammals to have evolved wings?bats
monotremesmammals that lay eggs
marsupialsgive live birth but do not have long gestration times like placental mammals
what type of mammals are humans?placental mammals