Bio 101 final chapter 23

michelleburkee2's version from 2015-12-15 08:47

Section 1

Question Answer
what are the seven characteristics of animalseukaryotic, multicellular, lack a cell wall, obtain energy by consuming other organisms, most reproduce sexually, they are motile at some point in the life cycle, and respond rapidly to external stimuli
do animals have a cell wall?no
tissues defgroups of similar cells that carry out a specific function
what are the simplest animals?sponges
do sponges have tissues?no
what are the two characteristics of animals with radial symmetry?they are sessile or drift and they have 2 embryonic tissues
what is the most common type of body cavity?the coelom
which body cavity has 3 layers?*the coelom*
which type of body cavity is not completely surrounded by the mesoderm?the pseduocoleom
what is it called when an organism does not have a body cavity?acoelomates
what 5 phylla have coeloms?annelids, arthropods, mollusks, echinoderms, and chordates
what phylla has a pseudocoelom?the roundworms (nemotoda)
what phylla has an acoelomate?flatworms and cnidarians
protosome developmentmouth forms first
deuterosome developmentanus forms first
2 evolutionary lines of protosomesecdysozoans and lophotrochozoans
what are ecdysozoans?bodies are covered by outer layer that can be shed
what are lophotrochozoans?they have a specialized feeding structure called the lophophore and pass through tochophore larva developmental stage
who are ecdysozoans?arthropods and roundworms
who are lophotrochozoans?flatworms, annelids and mollusks
animals devloped fromprotists
are a greater number of animals invertebrates or vertebrates?invertebrates. 97%
sponges have what type of body plan?simple
do sponges have organs?no. they lack tissues
how do sponges reproduce?asexually or sexually
sponges have how many sexes?two (hermaphorditic)
who produces a treatment for fungal infections and promising anticancer drugs?*sponges*
3 types of sponge cellsepithelial, collar, and amoeboid
epithelial cellscover outer body surfaces and some are pores
collar cellsmaintain water flow
amoeboide cellsproduce reproductive cells and secrete skeletal projections
what controls movement and feeding of cnidarias?the nerve net
cnidarians lackorgans and a brain
example of profieria#sponge#
example of cnidaria#sea jellies#
what are the two body plans of a cnidaria?the polyp and the medusa
polypattached to rocks, tentacles that reach upward to grasp immobilize prey
medusafloats in the water and is carried by currents
can cnidarias only live as a medusa or polyp?no they can live as both
cnidarians reproduce*sexually or asexually*
cnidocytesspecialized stinging cells for defense and prey capture on cnidarians
do cnidarians actively hunt?no the victims run into tentacles
how do cnidarians eat?they have a sac-like digestive chamber and only have a single opening which is their mouth and anus
corals have hard skeletons made ofcalcium carbonate
what creates a skeleton for corals?the polyps
what phyla provides undersea habitats that support wealth of diversity?cnidarians. (coral)

Section 2

Question Answer
are all animals multicellular?yes.
do animals have a cell wall?no
what is the only modern day organism that does not have tissues?proferia (sponges)
how many tissue layers do animals with radial symmetry have?2 layers
what layers of tissue do animals with radial symmetry have?ectoderm and endoderm
ectodermouter layer covers the body. Lines inner cavities. forms nervous system
endoderminner layers. lines most hollow organs (lines gut)
what are the two characteristics of animals with bilateral symmetrythey are motile and they have 3 layers of tissue
mesodermthe layer of tissue between the ectoderm and endoderm. it forms muscles, circulatory and skeletal systems
what is the type of cnidarian that is attatched to rocks and has tenticles that reach upward to grasp immobilize prey?polyp
what is the type of cnidarian that floats in the water and is carried by currents?medusa
platyhelminthes exampleflatworms
how do platyhelminthes eatthey are parasites
how do platyhelminthes reproduce?sexually or asexually
do platyhelminthes have organs?yes**
do platyhelminthes have a nervous system?*yes*
do platyhelminthes have a respiratory system?*no*
do platyhelminthes have a circulatory system?**no**
tapeworms are an example ofplatyhelminthes
annelida exampleearth worm
segmented wormsannelida
segmentation allowsfor complex movement
how do annelida reproduce?sexually or asexually**
does annelida has a circulatory system?yes. they have a closed circulatory system
do annelida have a nervous system and digestive system?%yes.%
3 subgroups of annelidaearthworms, leeches and polychaetes

Section 3

Question Answer
how many embryonic tissues do sponges have?none. they do not have tissue
how many embryonic tissues do jellyfish (cnidaria) have?$2$
how many tissues do comb jellies (ctenophora) have?*2*
what layer of tissue is on the outside?ectoderm
what layer of tissue is on the inside?endoderm
what layer of tissue is between the ectoderm and endoderm?mesoderm
do jellyfish have a mesoderm?no. they only have a ectoderm and endoderm.
what layer of tissue lines inner cavities?*ectoderm*
what layer of tissue forms nervous system?$ectoderm$
what layer of tissue lines most hollow organs?*endoderm*
what layer of tissue lines the gut?$endoderm$
what layer of tissue forms muscles the circulatory system and skeletal systems?mesoderm*
cephalizationconcentration of sensory organs and brain
have well defined headsbilaterally symmetrical animals
anterior of a bilateral animalhead
exterior of a bilateral animalmay feature a tail
divided into mirror image halves along one plane that runs down the midline*bilateral animals*
coeloma fluid filled body cavity between digestive tube and outer body wall. it acts as a skeleton providing support, form protective buffer between interal organs and outside world and allows organs to move independently
who has a coelom?%bilaterally symmetrical animals%
what acts as a skelton providing support for the body?the coelom
what forms a protective buffer between interal organs and the outside world?*the coelom*
what allows organs to move independently?%the coelom%
what are the three types of body cavities?coelom, pseudocoelom, and acoelomates

Section 4

Question Answer
have a shellmollusca
what type of circulatory system do mollusca have?open circulatory system
the mantle of the molluscaextension of body wall, forms chamber for gills, and secretes shell
the nervous system of the molluscaganglia connected by ventral nerves
how do mollusca reproduce?sexually
3 classes of mollusksgastropods, bivalves, and cephalopods
gastropodsone footed crawlers, most use gills, some diffusion via skin
bibalvesfilter feeders, gills for feeding and respiration, foot to dig in substrate
cephalopodsmarine predetory carnivores, large brains, highly developed sensory system
what is the most diverse and abundant animals?arthropoda
4 examples of arthropodainsects, arachnids, myriapods, and crustaceans
have an exoskeleton made of chitin that protects against predatorsarthropods
why must arthropoda molt?they shed their skin when they grow
3 specialized regions of arthropodahead, throax, and abdomen
what type of circulatory system do arthropoda have?*open *
do arthropoda have a nervous system?yes
what contributes to the arthropoda's complex sensory system?the compound eye and the chemical and tactile receptors for sensing
what is the most abundant and diverse class of arthropoda?insects
the only flying invertebratesinsects (arthropoda)
how many pairs of legs do insects have?3
metamorphosisthe change of an insect from juvenile to adult body form
the 4 steps of metamorphasisegg->larva->pupa->adult
3 steps of incomplete metamorphosisegg->nymph->adult
how many pairs of legs do arachnids have?4
the sensory hairs of arachnida (4 functions)touch, smell, taste, aid in detecting predators or prey
example of myriapods (arthropods)centipedes and millipedes
centipedes eatthey are carnivorous
millipedes eatdecaying vegetation
how many pairs of antennae do crustaceans have?2
what protects the nematoda?the cuticle
does the nematoda have one opening or two openings for feeding?2. it has a mouth and an anus
nematoda do not havea circulatory and respiratory system
how do nematoda reproduce?sexually
heartworm is an example of a nematoda
are all nematoda parasites?^no^
what makes up the endoskeleton of a echinoderm?calcium carbonate
what type of symmetry do echinoderms have?when they are a larvae they have bilateral symmetry and when they are an adult they have radial symmetry
enchinoderms have a ______ but do not have a _____ and ______they have a nervous system but do not have a brain or a circulatory system
echinoderms reproducesexually by external fertilization
why are corals and earthworms relevant?ecological reasons
why are nematoda and flatworms relevant?some are parasites
why are leeches (annelida) relevant?medical
why are invertebrate relevant?for research. they are excellent model systems
a cuttlefish is a mollusk