Bio 101 final chapter 21

michelleburkee2's version from 2015-12-15 11:24

Section 1

Question Answer
3 characteristics of plantsphotosynthesis, multicellular embryos, and alternation of generations
the only photosynthetic organism that forms an embryoplant
chlorophyll is present inplants and some protists and prokaryotes
sporophtye is diploid
gametophyte ishaploid
how are gametophytes formed?the dipoloid sporophyte produces haploid spores. the spores divide by mitosis and develop into haploid gameotype plants
produces male and female haploid gametesgametophytes
dispersal of embryosseeds
dispersal of sex cellspollen
attract animal pollinatorsflowers
attract animal foragersfruits
plants evolved to have dominant ____ generationsporophyte
most plants have _____ gametophytesmicroscopic
nonvascular plantsbrophytes. require a moist environment to reproduce
vascular plantsable to colonize dry habitats

Section 2

Question Answer
the embryos of plants are unicellular or multicellular?multicellular
the embryo of the plant is attatched to the parent
what is the difference between protists and prokaryotes and plants?protists do not have a embryo dependant on the parent and the embryo does not receive nutrients from the parent
plant reproductionaltenation of generation. alternating between diploid (2n) and haploid (n) generations
how do gametophytes form male and female gametes?mitosis
mitosis2 identical cells
meiosis"sexual reproduction"
how are zygotes formed?gametes fuse (n+n) and form zygotes (2n)
how are diploid sporophytes created?gametes fuse (n+n) to form diploid zygotes (2n) which divide by mitosis and develop into diploid sporophytes
what is an ancestor of plants? why?photosynthetic protists (algae). has similar DNA, same type of chlorophyll, store food as starch, cell walls made of cellulose
advantages land brought plantsdirect sunlight and access to nutrient rich soil
4 challenges land brought plantsno structural support from water, no moisture, no nutrients floating by, and no wet medium to transport gametes to form zygotes
5 plant adaptations that helped them survive on landdevelopment of roots, development of waxy cuticle, presence of cells that transport water and minerals upward from the roots to all parts of plant, and reproductive adaptations
what are reproductive adaptations of plantsseeds, pollen, flowers, and fruits
ligninsuports plant body
what type of plants require moist environment ot reproduce?nonvascular plants
what type of plants are able to colonize dry habitats?vascular plants
only seedless vascular plant with broad leavesfern
what do ferns require for reproduction?water
how are gametes produced in ferns?gametes produced in archegonia and antheridia on haploid gametophyte
where does the zygote develop in ferns?diploid sporophyte

Section 3

Question Answer
lack true roots, stems and leavesnonvascular plants
rhizoidsnonvascular plants use these for "roots". they bring nutrients to plant
why are nonvascular plants limited in body size?they lack stiffening agents in cell walls
most diverse nonvascular plantmoss
how can moss survive in drier areas?some have a waterproof covering which retains moisture
peataccumulations of dead mosses
archegoniaproduce egg
antheridiaproduce sperm
seedless vascular plant examplesclub mosses, horsetails, and ferns
seedless vascular plant reproductionrequire water for reproduction
do club mosses produce seeds?no
do horsetails produce seeds?*no*
do ferns produce seeds?**no**
outer layer of cells contrain silicaseedless vascular plants
size of seedless vascular plantssmall
most diverse vascular plantferns
vascular plant adaptationspollen grains and seeds
seed plantsgymnosperms and angiosperms
pollen grainsmale gameotophytes that carry sperm producing cells
3 components of seedsembryonic sporophyte, food supply for the embryo, and protective outer coat
have flowersangiosperms
are there male and female conifer cones?^^yes. ^^
most predominant plantangiosperms
who did angiosperms evolve in association with animals?animals benefit by eating protein rich pollen and plants benefit by using animals as pollinators
anthers makepollen (male gametophyte)
ovules makefemale gametophyte

Section 4

Question Answer
what evolved first: angiosperms or gymnospermsgymnosperms
4 groups of gymnospermsginkgos, cycads, gnetophytes, and conifers
gymnosperms restricted to warm climates cycads
leaves contain toxins*cycads*
shrubs, vines, and small treesgnetophytes
restricted to dry climates*gneotophytes*
leaves contain compounds used as stimulants and appetite suppressants**gneotophytes**
pines, firs, spruce, hemlocl, cypressesconifers
abundant in cold latitutd and high elevations*conifers*
seeds develop in cones**conifers**
produce flowers and fruitsangiosperms
most diverse and widespread of all plants*angiosperms*
3 adaptations that lead to angiosperm dominanceflowers, fruits, and broad leaves
evolved in association with animals**angiosperms**
ovary surrounding seeds of an angiospermfruit
why do leaves drop?to conserve water when in short supply
3 angiosperm physical defensesthorns, spines, and resins
2 angiosperm chemical defensesposinous and distasteful
people use angiosperms formedicines, stimulants, and spices