Bio 07 Chap 14 Mendel and the Gene

cpiotrowski's version from 2016-11-16 16:46

Section 1

Question Answer
chromosome theory of inheritancemeiosis causes the patterns of inheritance
Mendel's two theoriesblending inheritance and inheritance of acquired characteristics
blending inheritanceparental traits blend
inheritance of acquired characterisicsparental traits are modified then passed to offspring
F1 generationoffspring of P1 generation
reciprocal crossone parent's phenotype in the first cross is the ohter parents phenotype in the second cross = show parents do not matter
particulate inheritancehereditary determinants maintain their integrity form generation to generation
Mendel's experiments tested?Ind. and dep. assortment
Independent assortmentalleles of different genes are transmitted independently of each other
dependent assortment transmission of one allele depends on the transmission of another

Section 2

Question Answer
autosomesnon-sex chromosomes
autosomeal inheritancegenes on autosomes show
linked genepredicted to always be transmitted together during gamete formation
sex-linedfound on sex chromosome
multiple allelismgenes have mote than two allels
polymorphicmore than two distict phenotypes are present in a population bc multiple allelism
incomplete dominanceheterozygous organism that displays the phenotype of both allels of a single gene
codominanceNeither allele is dominant or recessive to the other
pleiotropicgenes that influence many traits
Marfan syndromeinc. height and limb length, heart problems. bc of pleiotrophy
gene-by-gene interaction phenotype associated with an allel depends on which allels are present at another gene
gene-by-environment interactionphenotype influenced by environment experienced by individual
polygenic inheritance of quantitative traitsmany genes involved in a trait

Section 3

Question Answer
pedigreesfamily trees to analyze heridity
geneticsbranch of bio that focuses on inheritance
hereditytransmission of traits from parents to their offspring
traitcharacteristic of an individual
phenotypeindividual's observable features
genotypeall found in an individual
homozygoustwo copies of the same allele
hetrozygoustwo different alleles
pure-lineindividuals always produce offspring with same phenotype bc they are homozygous
dihybrid crossesmating between parents that are both hetro
testcrosshomozygous recessive parent mate with a dominant phenotype but unknown genotype