Bio 07 Chap 12 Cell Cycle

cpiotrowski's version from 2016-11-16 19:03

Section 1

Question Answer
meiosisproduces gametes
mitosisproduces somatic cells
somatic cellsdaughter cell genetically identical to the parent cell
gametesegg and sperm
chromatids replicated chromosomes
mitotic spindleforms from microtubules- organizing center
metaphase plateimaginary plane formed by metaphase
changing-environment hypothesisgenetically different offspring are more likely to survive environment changes
purifying selection hypothesisdamaged gene will be inherited by all of ind. offspring

Section 2

Question Answer
interphasenondividing phase
mitotic phasedividing cell phase
InterphaseG1, S, G2
G0 Statecells stuck permanently stuck in G1
Mitosis-promoting factor (MPF)induces mitosis in all eukaryotes
Sub units of MPFprotein kinase and cyclin
protein kinaseenzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group; from ATP to a target protein
cyclinsubunit functions as a regulatory protein
G1 checkpointcell size, nutrient availability, social signals from other cells, health of DNA
p53will pause cell cycle or initiate apoptosis
G2 checkpointcells stop growing if replication went wrong
Metaphase checkpointcell growth stops if chromosomes are not properly attached to mitotic spindle,

Section 3

Question Answer
prophasechromosomes condense
prometaphasenuclear envelope breaks down; nucleolus disappears; kinetochore microtubules attach to sister chromatids
metaphaseformation of the mitotic spindle is completed; chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
anaphasecentromeres split; relicated chromosomes split
telophasenew nuclear envelope begins to form around chromosomes; mitotic spindles disapear
cytokinesis plantsvesicles fuse to form a cell plate
cytokinesis animalsactin and myosin filaments contracts inside the cell membrane making cleavage furrow
cytokinesis bacterialol nope; fission is cool here