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BIGICT 2

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kojigabriel's version from 2017-05-14 18:24

core questions

Question Answer
IT Failure ReasonsI believe that IT projects can fail because the software is not current, is rushed through production to meet goals from Waterfall method, is not fore casted with cost correctly, is using complicated structures for the value chain and is based on a problematic platform. It is important that the IT project inputs and outputs data that is valuable, can have data pulled in a manageable and easy way, and is easy for the IT team to manage and for users to access without hassle. Without this, you are spending extra resources fixing the project and users wasting time with work around in the system, then being productive.
Modern reasons for success1. Executive Support 2. User Involvement 3. Clear Business Objectives 4. Emotional Maturity
SDLC 1.Initiation - A new idea, feature or application is expressed into making a new application. The first stage is merely to decide what is wanted to be done.
SDLC 2.Feasability Study - a close look at how possible it is make the new application. This phase will take into consideration the hours, tools, personnel, resources and anything that the project will need in order to be successful.
SDLC 3.Requirement Analysis - this phase will be assessing if the application is meeting any requirements by law or regulatory standards that the business abides to on a legal level. This is important for any financial institutions, or with any sensitive data.
SDLC 4.System Design - a plan on how to design the system with feasibility and requirement in mind is made. This phase will decide how the structure of the application will be coded and implemented.
SDLC 5.Build - a plan on how to design the system with feasibility and requirement in mind is made. This phase will decide how the structure of the application will be coded and implemented.
SDLC 6.Implement - this phase is the actual launch phase of the application.
SDLC 7.Maintain - this phase is a look at the application, assessing if there are any bugs or small changes that need to be made. As time goes on, less time will be devoted to maintaining to the application until it almost runs with no guidance.
SDLC 8.Kill - This portion is to end the lifecycle.
Inner sphereproject and change management
change managementincludes, software changes, information system changes, and organizational. these changes will occur until last phase of sdlc. can be done three phase change (old system, live date, and new system)
UML planning1. inception, establish case for system 2. identify all external actors and nature of interaction between use cases (including risks)
UML building1. out of inception, comes a visual model. 2. elaborate, is to reduce risks. architectural decisions can be made based on it 3. construction
use case diagramdefine system and actor interaction based on scenario. generalization is association between two use cases. use cases that depend on action from another, is an included relationship. extended means that the functionality is optional
activity diagramto define program flow and decision points where actions are required
UML identifies1. WHY - to determine user involment, visualize system 2. WHAT - is a notation for system specs, modelling language, not a method, procedure, or dependent on methods
scrumlightweight agile management for development. there is scrum master, scrum product owner and scrum team. uses backlog of user needs from system organized by priorirty and user stories. team is given more decision making, but has no traditional project manager. it is made for continuous improvement and updating system. they only work on sprints that know can be done (2-4 weeks).
waterfall to iterativeproblems are found much earlier
UML isa notation, not methodology
SDLC advantageRisk analysis is highly defined  Requirement analysis is a focused portion and is good for providing documentation of the project. Maintenance and functionality can be revisited after launch. Software is developed early (in comparision to the Waterfall approach)ff to clearly understand how they navigate and use the system in an operational context
SDLC disadvantageCan be expensive, doesn't work for small projects, if early analysis aren't done correctly project will fail.
SDLC when to use1. When costs and risk evaluation is important 2. Long-term project commitment unwise because of potential changes to economic priorities. 3. The end users needs are vague. Requirements are complex. 4. changes are expected after launch
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general questions

Question Answer
RADrapid application development, focuses on releasing an alpha asap in order to release soon and control functionality
Waterfall1. Initiation 2. Feasability 3. Analysis 4, Design 5, Build 6. Testing 7. Maintenance
Aspect of System Development1. active user involvement 2. DSDM (dynamic system development methodology) teams empowered to make decisions 3, Timely delivery of products 4,Fitness for business applications 5, Incremental changes 6, all changes reversible 7, Requirements at high level 8, Testing is regular 9, Stakeholders also in communication
ROIReturn on investment, usually not seen until after the system implemented. PPT, people process technology, allows for companies to more accurately determine return on investment
RFPRequest for Proposal. Is any formal request for new functionality or service that is documented in different levels of the business.
Prince2development from uk 1. business focused 2. defined hierarchy for management team 3. product based planning 4. emphasis of delegation 5. flexibility
RUPrational unified process 1. develop software incrementally 2. manage requirements 3. use component based architectures 4. visualize model 5. verify quality 6. controla changes (enhances productivity, creates models, uses UML)
HOFER design1. diving requirements into essentional and optional 2. understanding sfotware, hardware and network environment 3. understanding where to acquire capabilities (outsource, purchase software, or development of new softwarew)
Design types1. top down - getting overall picture before design 2. bottom up - specifying hard coding before general concept
Design1. defines client- server, how system is brokwn down and how user navigates 2. design of model ´- interface, operate or looking 3. database - using the most efficient structure 4. user interace - usability 5. security
Data Migrationtransfer of information from old to new system
V Model1. initiation - review 2. rquirements - user acceptance 3. overall design - system test 4. detailed design - unit test 5 code
Post Implementation Reviewmeeting after system operates to evalaute success, includes faults, budget, timeframe, business requirements, evaluating which development process worked and which didnt
Configuration MGMTis control of different versions of software that is released to user during development 1. alpha release - from build process, have most functionality 2. alpha testing - identify bugs from alpha. 3. beta - has almost all functionality
System Changeoveris concerned with the smooth shift from one way of doing things to another and the mitigation of disruption to business activities during the changeover. There are three main methods used: phased implementation, direct changeover and parallel running.
Organization Change MGMT1. business process, uses software to improve information flow between business people tasks 2. incremental - small adjustments by organization 3. discontinuous - change from major change in industry
BPM tool1. process mapping, using flowcharts to document processes and decision poitns 2. business process simulation, using software to simulate business processes 3. business activity monitoring, software that monitors and analyzes business performace in real time visually for decision to be made
SOAservice oriented architecture, its to make it services that span across org, defines way that services are used outside of software. advantage is to link business processes to environment without knowing application. web service is the technology used for this. has nothing to do with vendor, product or technologies.
IS strategybusiness information, how data is used to meet business goals. Chief information officer reports to senior management. functionality, how services are defined.
IT strategydefines software and hardware needed.
Balanced Scorecardlets business measure its efficiency. metrics are customer issues, internal efficiency, finance and innovation
Why is it a problem to determine ROI on IT services?costs for tech tangible, long term is not
Why Outsource?lets company focus on own needs, lets work be handled by pro, and also cost since it specialist companies can manage needs better
Resource Based Theoryenables comptetive advantage in managing resources of a company in IT or operations
COBITcontrol objectives for information technology measures efficiency, privacy, availability and compliance
ITILinformation tech infrastructure library. books that describe best it practices and mgmt with process, common language. independent of hierarchy
Threats to ITaccidents, disasters, sabotage, vandalism, theft, unauthorized, viruses or malwarre
IT Threats Controlcontainment (limiting control to system), deterrence (lawful penalties), obfuscation (hiding or distribuing it assets), recovery (recover date from breach)
End User DevelopmentIs any user of a system that is not an IT professional
End User Information Service exampleshelp desk, standardization of software/hardware, networking, training and services
TCOTotal Cost of Ownership. Measure of all IT related service (computers, software, training, staff and productivity)
EUD hard becauseneed of new apps exceeds ability to deliver. desire of users to view own data. risks are using out of date info, corruption of data by error, development of insecure system
Ethics in IT or ISprofessionalism, safety, laws, values are needed by is professional
BPMNbusiness process management notation, for outlining business process of a company
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vague shite

Question Answer
process modellingdesigning models by defined input and outputs
data modellingconsidering how to represent data within system, logically and physically
project organization1. sponsor 2. manager 3. user 4. quality manager 5. risk manager
project management process includes1. estimate on resources 2. schedule resources 3. monitoring 4. documentation
project managementproject is a one time operation to complete an objective in timeframe. must be balance between quality, time and cost
normalizationprocess of grouping attributes in relationships between records and tables
test specificationdescription of tests to check software, using a test plan
degree of change1. BPR, business process re engineering identifies new ways of carrying out business ops enabled by IT 2. BPI, business process improvement, optimizes current processes with IT 3. BPA, business process automation, automates existing work through IT
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