Behavioral Sciences

ptheodore's version from 2015-08-01 21:53

Embryo & Fetus Defects

Question Answer
CNS Structural Defect3-6 weeks
CNS Physiological Defect6 - 38 weeks
Heart Structural Defect3 - 6 weeks
Heart Physiological Defect6 - 8 weeks
Arms Structural Defect4- 8 weeks
Arms Physiological Defect8 Weeks
Eyes Structural Defect4 - 8 weeks
Eyes Physiological Defect8 - 38 weeks
Legs Structural Defect4 - 8 weeks
Legs Physiological Defect8 weeks
Teeth Structural Defect6 - 8 weeks
Teeth Physiological Defect12 -16 weeks
Palate Structural Defect6 - 12 weeks
Palate Physiological Defect12 weeks
External Genitalia Structural Defect7 - 12 weeks
External Genitalia Physiological Defect12 - 38 weeks
Ear Structural Defect4 - 12 weeks
Ear Physiological Defect12-16 weeks

Development Stages 1

Question Answer
Infant, Birth – 1 yrTrust vs. Mistrust
Toddler, 1 – 3 yrsAutonomy vs. Shame & Doubt
Preschool, 3 – 5 yrsInitiative vs. Guilt
Elementary, 5 – 12 yrsIndustry vs. Inferiority
AdolescenceIdentity vs. Role Confusion
Early AdulthoodIntimacy vs. Isolation
Middle AdulthoodGenerativity vs. Stagnation
Late AdulthoodEgo Integrity vs. Despair

Development Stages 2

Question Answer
Trust vs. MistrustBabies learn to trust or mistrust others based on whether or not their needs (food/comfort) are met
Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtRealization that they can direct their own behavior
Initiative vs. GuiltChallenged to control their own behavior, such as controlling their exuberance in a restaurant
Industry vs. InferioritySucceed at learning new skills and obtaining new knowledge, they develop a sense of industry, a feeling of competence arising from their work and effort
Identity vs. Role Confusionmust decide who or what they want to be in terms of occupation, beliefs, attitude, and behavior pattern
Intimacy vs. Isolationbe able to share who they are with another person in a close, committed relationship
Generativity vs. Stagnationto be creative, productive, and nurturant of future generations
Ego Integrity vs. Despairsense of wholeness, and acceptance and if they will reach wisdom

Development Stages 3

Question Answer
Trust vs. MistrustIf needs met, they learn to trust people and expect life to be pleasant
Trust vs. MistrustIf not met, they learn not to trust
Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtLearn to be independent in directing their own behavior
Autonomy vs. Shame & DoubtIf toddler’s attempts at being independent are blocked, they learn self-doubt and shame for being unsuccessful
Initiative vs. GuiltIf they successfully take responsibility, they feel capable and develop initiative
Initiative vs. GuiltFailure to take responsibility and they feel irresponsible, anxious, and guilty
Industry vs. InferiorityWhen children succeed at learning new skills, they develop a sense of industry, feeling of competence and self-esteem coming from their work and effort
Industry vs. InferiorityIf children fail to develop new abilities, they feel incompetent, inadequate, and inferior
Identity vs. Role ConfusionSucceed in defining who they are and find a role for themselves develop a strong sense of identity (Valley Girls, etc.)
Identity vs. Role ConfusionConfused, and withdrawn. Or want to inconspicuously blend in with the crowd
Intimacy vs. IsolationHave intimate relationships
Intimacy vs. IsolationWill be isolated from other people and suffer from lonliness
Generativity vs. StagnationWill be creative, productive and nurturant, thereby benefitting themselves, their family, community and other generations
Generativity vs. StagnationWill be passive and self-centered, feel that they have done nothing for future
Ego Integrity vs. DespairEnjoy life and not fear death
Ego Integrity vs. DespairFeel their life is empty and will fear death


Question Answer
Scale 1HS=Hypochondriasis
Scale 2D=Depression
Scale 3Hy=Hysteria
Scale 4Pd=Psychopathic Deviance
Scale 5Mf=Masculinity-Femininity
Scale 66-Pa=Paranoia
Scale 7Pt=Psychasthenia
Scale 8Sc=Schizophrenia
Scale 9M=Mania
Scale 0Si=Social introversion

Paralimbic System

Question Answer
Empathy, Affect, decision making, cognitive controlAnterior Cingulate
Awareness of body states, pain perceptionInsula
Evaluation of sensory stimuli; generation of emotional responsesAmygdala
Directs visual attention away from disturbing scenesIntraparietal Sulcus
Reflective processing of social situationsSuperior Temporal Gyrus
Monitors uncomfortable interactions with others, i.e. trustAnterior Insula
Learning from rewards and punishments, behavioral flexibility, impulse control, emotional and social decision makingOrbitofrontoal Cortex
Integration of emotion and perception, social processingTemporal Pole
Emotional memory, emotion processingPosterior Cingulate

Drugs & Surgical Options

Question Answer
Drug for InsomniaBenzodiazepines (Valium) & Diazepam & Triazolam (Benzodiazepines) Fast acting drugs
Drug for REM Sleep Behavior DisorderClonazepam (benzodiazepine)
DeliriumAntilirium (anticholinergic toxicity )
Schizophrenia (+ signs only)Haldol (haloperidol) or "Typical" ...ZINES work on DA
Schizophrenia (+ & - signs)Clozapine, Olanzapine, Risperidone work on DA & Serotonin
DepressionSSRI’s or Tricyclic (for patients who are not responsive to SSRI’s)
BipolarLithium {Anticonvulsants may help in some cases such as valproic acid (Depakene)}. Antidepressants may work (although might trigger manic episodes, and loss of libido as a side effect).
OCD (Surgical Opiton)Stereotactic ablation of the anterior cingulum has been effective for drug-resistant
Vagal nerve stimulationWorks in Depression by increasing NE and 5-HT.
Deep Brain StimulationOCD and depression in PD patients (May work).
Electro-Convulsive TherapyUse in depression (Typical course is 5-10 treatments over 2-3 weeks).
Non-Drug treatment for Generalized Anxiety DisorderCognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)
Panic disorderAlprazolam & Lorazepam (Benzodiazepines) Long acting drugs
Alcohol withdrawal/detoxChlordiazepoxide (Benzodiazepines)
Drugs to treat ConvulsionsBenzodiazepines
Main drug for AnxietyBuspirone & (Diazepam & Triazolam (Benzodiazepines) Fast acting drugs)
Exposure and ritual prevention (ERP )Specific type of CBT just for OCD
ClomipramineOCD treament
Body Dysmorphic DisorderWellbutrin (buproprion)
MAO-I’s work best forDepression with Atypical features
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)Vascular Depression

Other Names

Question Answer
‘Paradoxical’ sleep known asREM sleep
Can’t regulate body temp in Rem SleepPoikilothermic
Initial insomnia A.K.ASleep onset insomnia
Middle insomnia A.K.ASleep maintenance insomnia
Sleeping Beauty’ syndromeKlein-Levin Syndrome
Pickwickian SyndromeObesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
Nocturnal MyoclonusPeriodic Limb Movement Syndrome
SomniloquySleep Talking
Acute Confusional (delusional) State.Delirium
Pick’s diseaseFrontotemporal Disease
Mild Cognitive ImpairmentPseudodementia
Dissociative AmnesiaPsychogenic Amnesia
Othello SyndromeJealous type Delusion
Folie a Deux’Shared Psychotic Disorder (Madness Shared by Two)
Unipolar disorderDepression
DysthymiaPersistent Depressive Disorder
Postpartum DepressionMajor Depressive Disorder with Peripartum Onset
Baby bluesPostpartum blues
Shy bladderSocial Anxiety Disorder/Social Phobia
HypochondriasisSomatic Symptoms Disorders
HysteriaConversion Disorder / Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder
BigorexiaBDD with Dysmorphia / Adonis Complex
Mass HysteriaMass Psychogenic Illness
Multiple Personality DisorderDissociative Identity Disorder
Ganser SyndromeNonsense syndrome / Prison Psychosis
Munchausen’sFactitious Disorder imposed on Oneself
Munchausen’s by proxyFactitious Disorder Imposed on Another

Men Vs Women

Question Answer
Obstructive sleep apnea hypopneaMen
REM Sleep Behavior DisorderMen 60 yrs and older.
Alzheimer’s DiseaseWomen
Vascular DiseaseMen
Depression (unipolar disorder)Women
SchizophreniaMen = Women
Bipolar disorder Men = Women (Mania more likely in Men, Women have higher rate of Mania)
CyclothymiaMen = Women
Specific PhobiasWomen (Except for fear of blood, injection, or injury, which are equal in Men & Woman).
OCDMen = Women (In adolescence, more prevalent amongst boys.)
Somatic Symptom DisorderWomen
Conversion DisorderWomen (especially girls)
Body Dysmorphic DisorderMen = Women
Bulimia NervosaWomen
Anorexia NervosaWomen

Some Specific Phobias

Question Answer
TomophobiaSurgical Operations
TetraphobiaThe # 4
AeronausiphobiaVomiting as a result of air sickness
MysophobiaGerms or Dirt
AgraphobiaSexual Abuse
CaligynephobiaBeautiful Women
BromidrophobiaBody Odor (Animals & Humans)


Question Answer
1. Stupor(No psychomotor activity)
2. Catalepsy(passive induction of a posture held against gravity-Rigid)
3. Waxy flexibility(Can be posed by others)
4. Mutism(No verbal responses)
5. Negativism(No response to instructions)
6. Posturing(Maintaining postures against gravity)
7. Mannerism(Odd caricature of normal actions)
8. Stereotypy(Repetitive movements)
9. Agitationnot influenced by external stimuli
10. GrimacingFacial movements
11. Echolalia(Mimicking another’s speech)
12. Echopraxia(Mimicking another’s actions)

PTSD (Other names include)

Question Answer
Civil WarSoldier’s Heart
1st World WarShell Shock
2nd World WarCombat Neurosis
Gulf WarGulf War Syndrome