Behavioral Neuroscience

anskorczewski12's version from 2016-02-25 15:58

Routes of administration

Question Answer
intravenous (IV) injectioninto the vein (fast)
intraperitoneal (IP) injectionin abdominal/chest cavity
intramuscular (IM) injectionin muscle (longer)
subcutaneous (SC)under skin (longer)
oral administrationdigesting (has to stand up to stomach acid)
sublingual administrationunder tongue (dissolves faster)
intermucosalin nasal mucus membrane
intrarectal administrationin rectum
topical administrationcream/lotion/sticker
transdermalinto layers of skin
intracerebral administrationinto brain
intracerebroventricularinto ventricles of brain


Question Answer
fatty substance that acts as insulation around the axon of a neuron (speeds neural firing) myelination / myelin sheathing
spaces between myelinated sections of the axon where the axon comes into contact with extracellular fluidnodes of ranvier
type of neurons that take info to the brain (from PNS to CNS) sensory neuron
type of neuron that sends info out (CNS to PNS) motor neuron
type of neuron that sends info between areas of CNS (entirely within CNS) interneuron
creates energy for cells in the form of ATPmitochondrion
contains enzymes (proteins that guide chemical reactions to combine/break down substances) lysosome
strands of protein filaments running down length of cell; important for transporting substances within the cell microtubule
types of glial cells: 1. astrocyte 2. oligodendrocyte 3. microglial 4. schwann cells
type of glial cell that supports neurons, provides nutrients, and regulates composition of extracellular fluid (gives energy to neurons)astrocyte
type of glial cell that does myelin sheathing in CNS (1 cell wraps around many neurons)oligodendrocyte
type of glial cell that removes waste (phagocytosis), protects the brain from invading microorganismsmicroglia
type of glial cell that does myelin sheathing for PNS and removes waste (many cells to one neuron) schwann cells
semi-permeable barrier between the blood and the brain (walls of the capillaries are porous, which allows for nutrients through) blood-brain barrier
a region of the medulla where the blood-brain barrier is weak (detects toxins in blood) area postrema
Two forces across the membrane: 1. diffusion (move from high conc. to low conc.) 2. electrostatic pressure (magnetic attraction)
electrical charge across a cell membrane created by charged particles (ions)membrane potential
membrane potential of a neuron when it is not firing (-70mV)resting membrane potential
action potentialelectrical impulse running along an axon
membrane potential that must be reached to produce an action potential threshold of excitation
reduction of the membrane potential from resting potentialdepolarization
channel that opens or closes according to the membrane potentialvoltage-dependent ion channel
: reach threshold of excitation, NA+ channels open (depolarization), K+ channels open and NA+ channels close (hyperpolarization), K+ channels close, NA/K transporters return to resting potentialrun through an action potential
action potential moves down axon as depolarization moves to adjacentpropagation
once triggered, the action potential continues to end of the neuron without decrementall-or-none law
variations in the info transmitted by an axon are due to the rate at which that axon firesrate law
conduction of action potentials down myelinated axons, action potential jumps from one node of ranvier to the nextsaltatory conduction

Pharmacology (sec. 2)

Question Answer
MonoaminesCatacholamines (dopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine); indolamines (seroonin); ethylamine (histamine)
Dopamine CNS pathway(part of catacholamines) 1.Nigrostriatal system (control of developing movement) 2.Mesolimbic system (reward system) 3.mesocortical system (STM, planning, problem solving)
Biosynthesis/enzymatic breakdown of Dopamine(Tyrosine) into L-DOPA into Dopamine into Norepinephrine; monoamine oxidase breakdown (with multiple receptors)
monoamine oxidaseenzyme that breaks down Dopamine, Norepinephrine, and Serotonin
Norepinephrinepart of catacholamines of monoamines; uses axonal variscosity/ receptors: for vigilance
Norepinephrine in PNSsympathetic system of ANS (fight or flight)
Norepinephrine in CNSneurotransmitter for several pathways (most important-norandrenergic for vigilance-arousal/alertness); uses axonal variscosity
axonal variscosityenlarged region along axon that contains synaptic vesicles
Epinephrinein PNS, hormone secreted by adrenal medulla (fight or flight)
Serotonin(part of indolamines of monoamines) CNS- several pathways (sleep, arousal, mood, eating, pain); monoamine oxidase breakdown; communicates through varicosities; a lot of receptors
Indolaminesserotonin (part of monoamines)
Catacholaminesdopamine, norepinephrine, epinephrine (part of monoamines)
Histamine(part of ethylamine of monoamine); in CNS-cell bodies in tuberomammillary nucleus (project to cortex and brainstem);
Enzymatic breakdown of histamine1.histamine-N-methyltransferase 2.Diamine oxidase
Receptors of HIstamine1.itching/allergic reaction/wakefulness 2.gastric acid, immune function 3.AUTORECEPTORS/wakefulness (when activated-decrease firing) 4.Immune function
Glutamatemost important excitatory NT
Glutamate receptors1.AMPA 2.Kainate 3.NDMA* 4.metabotropic glutamate receptor
NDMAcontrols calcium channel (usually blocked by Mg), has several binding sites on receptor (to open: glutamate binds, glycine binds, cell is partially depolarized, making Mg leave--gate opens, then Zn inhibits; polyamine facilitates; and PCP blocks to stop it
PCPbinds with binding site of NDMA so calcium can't pass (antagonist)
GABAimportant inhibitory NT; receptors: GABAa (ionotropic K), GABAb (metabotropic Cl)
GABAa binding sites1.GABA 2.benzodiazepine (sleepy) 3.barbituate (knock out) 4.picrotoxin 5.steroids 6.alcohol
Glycineinhibitory NT in lower brain stem and spinal cord (ionotropic receptor--tetanus/rat poison)
Peptidesact as NT/neuromodulator in brain (ex: endogenous opioids, such as heroin, morphine, naloxone, suboxone)
endogenous opioidspeptides that have analgesic/reinforcement/ or inhibition of species specific defensive behaviors (such as endorphines/enkaphelins)
lipidsderived from lipids that serve as NT/neuromodulator; cannabinoid receptors (tetrahydrocannabinol-active in marijuanna; acetaminophen)
nucleosidesadenosine (caffeine is antagonist)
adenosinenucleoside that is a neuromodulator released by astrocytes when neurons are short of fuel (causes blood vessels to dilate, slows CNS)-caffeine is antagonist
soluble gasesneurons can use this to communicate (no receptor binding); ex-nitric oxide
nitric oxidevasodilator (makes blood vessels larger); nitroglycerine (for heart), minoxidil (hair growth), viagra

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