Behavioral Neuroscience 3

anskorczewski12's version from 2016-04-18 22:44

Chapter 12 (Learning and Memory)

Question Answer
learningthe process by which experiences change our nervous system and behavior (changes the way we think, perceive, and plan); usually automatic
basic forms of learning1.perceptual learning (recognizing) 2.stimulus-response learning (stimulus causes a response) 3.motor learning (nondeclarative motor memory) 4.relational learning (learn how things go together)
synaptic plasticitychanges in the structure or biochemistry of synapses that alter their effects on postsynaptic neurons (brain structure changes)
long term potentiation long term increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular synaptic input, caused by repeated high-frequency activity of that input; increase number of receptors
Hebb rulefor us to learn to do things, repetition of activity makes our brain more efficient to ease burden on brain (must be mechanism to do this)
NMDAcalcium channel that is blocked by Mg, when glutamate binds and cell depolarizes, Mg moves and Ca comes in
AMPANa+ channel, when glutamate binds, sodium rushes in (more of this added in LTP)
LTP process(in hippocampus) glutamate binds to NMDA and AMPA, AMPA depolarizes cell, Mg moves, Ca rushes in (causes AMPA receptors to increase) [lasting change requires protein synthesis]
other LTP mechanisms1.development of new dendritic spines (connections) 2. (theory) pre-synaptic cell producing more glutamate
Long Term Depressionlong-term decrease in excitability of neuron to particular synaptic input (decrease AMPA receptors), caused by stimulation of terminal button while postsynaptic membrane is hyperpolarized or only slightly depolarized (slow stimulation)
brain areas involved in perceptual learningvisual association cortex (first learning / ventral and dorsal), pre-frontal cortex (working memory/manipulation, problem solving), basal ganglia (filters out excess information)
test for perceptual learningdelayed matching to sample test (show items, wait, ask if they have seen before)
classical conditioning(stimulus response learning) neutral stimulus becomes paired with another stimulus (NS/UCS/UCR/CS/CR): CS is paired with UNS
conditioned emotional responses (brain area) sensory association cortex (representation of conditioned stimulus here), lateral nucleus of amygdala (connection made here)
operant conditioning(stimulus response learning) behavior is impacted by its consequences (positive/negative reinforcement/punishment)
operant conditioning (brain area)associate sensory input and motor responses (sensory association cortex, motor association cortex, basal ganglia-connection here) dompamine pathway, prefrontal cortex (regulatory), project to basal ganglia (facilitates LTP)
dopamine pathways for operant conditioning reinforcement 1. ventral tegmental area 2. nucleus accumbens (powerful pleasure area) 3. medial forebrain bundle
memory structuresensory memory (large capacity, short duration, associated with senses), STM (short duration, limited to 7 items), consolidates to LTM (limitless, cues help, some degrades)
declarative memoryable to express what the memory is (episodic "I remember when..." and semantic "facts/knowledge/rules")
non-declarative memoryjust happens memory (classical and operant conditioning)
retrograde amnesialose memory before the incident
retrograde amnesia potential damaged areasassocation cortexes (where memories are stored), frontal lobe (can't manipulate/access them), temporal lobe (semantic dementia-don't know what words mean)
anterograde amnesialose memory after incedent
anterograde amnesia potential damaged areashippocampus (sensory association areas to hippocampus, hippocampus to sensory areas, hippocampus adds context when combining info from multiple areas, memories transferred to frontal cortex to where they are stored)
spatial memory (and brain area)remembering where we are in space (map of world layout) nondeclarative (in posterior portion of hippocampus on right side)
spatial memory important cellsplace cells (spatial receptive fields); grid cells (where you are on grid); head orientation cells; boundary cells (these are feature detectors in hippocampus)
neurogenesisstem cells divide and produce new neurons in dentate gyrus (of hippocampus, but also happens in olfactory bulb); play a role in learning and memory, but don't know exactly what

Chapter 13 (Communication)

Question Answer
side of brain for languageleft side (regardless of reading/speaking/writing/signing)
types of cerebrovascular accidents (used to study)hemoragic (bleeding into brain); ischemic (blood clot/lack of oxygen to an area)
apraxialoss of ability to generate words (no muscle control)
aphasialoss of production/comprehension of speech
alexialoss of ability to read
agraphialoss of ability to write
broca's arearegion of frontal cortex necessary for normal speech production; stores sequences of motor movements to articulate words (expressive)
wernicke's arearegion of auditory association cortex which is important in the comprehension of words and the production of meaningful speech; stores sequences of sounds that constitute words (understanding others)
posterior language areaimportant for word meanings (receives cortical inputs and connects Wernickes and Broca's area- gives semantic meanings)
arcuate fasciculusdirect connection between Wernicke's and Broca's area for sounds (allows you to repeat words)
Broca's aphasia(expressive) slow, laborious, and nonfluence speech; (agrammatism, anomia, and difficulty in speech articulation); difficulty with functional words (struggle with "cow is kicking horse or horse kicking cow)
Wernicke's aphasia(receptive) poor speech comprehension and production of meaningless speech (melodic and grammatical, uses fxnal words but not much content) (ex-tono tono); also has poor speech comprehension
pure word deafnessability to hear, speak, read, and write without being able to comprehend the meaning of speech (Wernicke's area damaged) (can't repeat)
transcortical sensory aphasiadifficulty comprehending and producing meaningful speech, but can repeat speech (damage to posterior language area)
anomic aphasiaspeech that is fluent and grammatical, but includes difficulty finding words (uses circumlocution); damaged left temporal or parietal lobe
conduction aphasiainability to repeat words that are heard but ability to speak normally and comprehend the speech of others (damaged arcuate fasciculus); can repeat basic meaning of what is heard
prosodyintonation, rhythm, and stress that add meaning to the sentences we speak (right hemisphere)
recognition of voicesright hemisphere, temporal lobe
stutteringproblem with auditory feedback loop
sign languageuses same language areas (still is left hemisphere and still has aphasias)

Reading and writing

Question Answer
2 skills for reading1.whole word reading (don't need to sound out words, just recognize them) 2.phonetic reading (sounding out new words using phonetic coding
neural pathway for readingvisual association cortex (recognition), visual word form area (put together words to sound out; left parietal lobe), wernicke's area, broca's area
pure alexialoss of the ability to read without loss of ability to write (no agraphia)
surface dyslexiacan read words phonetically, but difficulty with whole-word reading (words that are spelled not as sounds are hard)
phonological dyslexiacan read words with whole word reading, but can not use phonetic reading
direct dyslexiacan read words aloud but not understand them (mimics transcortical sensory aphasia)
writing involvesconstructing meaningful words/sentences and a motor activity
steps to learn to spellphonetic (sound out), visual (whole word), sequential (how letters go together), motor memory
neural control of writingform words in Wernicke's (get meaning) and Broca's (put meaning into context), and write words with dorsal parietal cortex (put actual letters into words) and pre-motor cortex (sends motor activity to hand)
phonological dysgraphiacan write familiar words, but can't sound out words (phonetic problem)
orthographic dysgraphiacan sound out words, but struggle with unusual spelling (only uses phonetic)

Chapter 10 (Emotions)

Question Answer
emotionspositive or negative reactions to specific situations (has behavioral response, autonomic response, and hormonal response)
endocrine systemsecretes hormones; adrenal medulla (secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine to prepare body for activity) and adrenal cortex (secretes cortisol to help enable energy stores to be used)
fear (neural control)amygdala, 1. lateral nucleus (contains neurons that respond to specific negative stimuli) 2.central nucleus (connections to multiple parts of brain to control emotional response)
conditioned emotional responseamygdala (makes connection)
extinction and inhibition of emotionsby ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) just suppresses, doesn't break connection
aggression and neural controlbehavior based on current condition and previous experience; amygdala (anger-driven) and hypothalamus (controls hormonal response, causes species specific tendences)
impulse controlventromedial prefrontal cortex (1. serotonin pathways inhibit impulsivity/aggression, more serotonin, less risk) 2.regulate emotions 3.complex analysis of social situations (moral decisions involve analyzing details of social situation and determining what you could live with)
developmentamygdala develops early, vmPFC develops later
aggression heredityindirect effects through serotonin systems (less active is more impulsive)
hormonal controlandrogen exposure (prenatal or postnatal) increases aggression and less impulse control
duchene smiletrue/genuine smile
emotional paresisdifficulty showing true emotions, but can fake it
volitional paresisable to do true emotions, but can't fake it
Chimeric facescut in half face, them compare differences (left side shows stronger emotion because right hemisphere is critical for emotions)
affective blindsightcan still perceive emotions in others' faces, but are blind (damage to visual cortex)
aspects of recognizing emotionsvisually, content/tone of voice, detection of gaze, mirror neurons
neural control of recognizing emotions visuallyright hemisphere, amygdala (fear and anger), insular cortex (disgust)
neural control of recognizing content/tone of voiceprefrontal cortex (primarily right side)
neural control of recognizing emotions by detection of gazesuperior central sulcus, sends info to amygdala
neural control of recognizing emotions by mirror neuronsrespond to facial expression of emotion, allow for understanding of emotions and intentions (in right hemisphere)
James-Lange Theorywe experience an emotion physiologically; then we label our experience
impact of stimulating facial expressionschanges physiological responses and changes subjective responses

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