Behavioral "Big Quiz"

anskorczewski12's version from 2016-05-13 03:20


Question Answer
Which of the following areas of the brain is not associated with vision? medial geniculate nucleus of thalamus
What are the 3 layers of the meninges that wrap around the entire central nervous system? 1. dura mater 2.arachnoid mater 3. pia mater
Which of the following are associated with motor movement (circle all that apply): thalamus, basal ganglia, cingulate gyrus, frontal lobesthalamus, basal ganglia, frontal lobes
The limbic system is made up of the cingulate gyrus and several other structures in the brain. Identify 2 of the structures that make up the limbic system in addition to the cingulate gyrus.1.hippocampus 2.amygdala 3.fornix
Which area of the brain is most directly involved with the experience of pain? Periaquaductal gray of the tegmentum
What is one brain structure that would be part of the myelencephalon? medulla oblongata
affinityreadiness with which molecules of a drug impact cells
As Tommy sits in class, his hippocampus is working hard to consolidate his experiences into new memories. Which Acetylcholine pathway is most likely active as Tommy is consolidating new memories?Medial Septum
Identify 2 scanning techniques that are used to provide information regarding the structure of the brain (often used to identify where damage is).MRI, CT, diffusion tensor imaging
What are the two component parts of the photopigments? Retinal and Opsin
One factor is hue, which refers to the dominant wavelength of the light. What are the other 2 factors discussed in class and what do they represent?Brightness (Intensity), Saturation (Purity)
Which area of the brain plays the largest role in visual reflexes?superior colliculi
Which of the following is not part of the neural circuitry for reinforcement or reward?amgdala (parts: ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens, medial forebrain bundle)
What is the name of the direct neural connection between Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area that plays an important role in an individual’s ability to repeat words they hear (spelling doesn’t count)? arcuate fasciculous
Which aphasia would be most accurately considered for an individual who can repeat what is being said to them with little problem, but they have no idea what it means?transcortical sensory aphasia
The sleep promoting mechanism is controlled or turned on by GABA neurons centered in which part of the brain?Ventrolateral Preoptic Area
REM On neurons (neurons that turn REM sleep on) are located in thesublateral dorsal nucleus of the pons
Identify 2 ways that these nonneuronal cancers can impact/impair the normal function of neurons?Direct Compression (pushes on surrounding), Indirect Compression (blocks blood flow), Infiltration (moves into healthy tissue)
status epilepticusExperiencing several seizures consecutively without gaining consciousness between

Autism, ADHD, Stress (chap. 16)

Question Answer
autistic spectrum disordersautism, asperger's syndrome, rett's disorder
autism symptomssocial deficits, communication deficit, repetitive stereotyped behaviors
aspergerssocial deficits and repetitive stereotyped behaviors
rett's disordersee low intellectual functioning, some social impairment, small head, some communication problems (only in females)
autistic spectrum risk factorsstrong evidence for heredity, teratogens, maternal illness, prenatal testosterone
autistic neurobiologyfaster growth early, then slows down below normal in frontal cortex and amygdala (unknown link), small FFA, less mirror neurons, less active medial prefrontal cortex, caudate nucleus of basal ganglia larger (repetitive behaviors), oxytocin levels lower (social hormone)
autism treatmentmeds (SSRIs increase self regulation, anti-psychotics, benzodiazepines slow brain), skills training (most effective)
ADHD kindshyperactivity/impulsivity; inattention; combination (more in boys, don't really extend into adulthood) VERY genetic
ADHD neurobiologydecreased dopamine systems (prefrontal cortex low activity so less of executive fxn, planning, delayed gratification, impulsivity), over active basal ganglia
ADHD treatment(dopamine stimulate to increase speed of brain so they don't need environment to do it), ritalin, adderall
stress response processbrain recognizes stress,releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) which causes release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from anterior pituitary gland, which causes adrenal cortex to release cortisol
glucocorticoids(for stress response) hormones secreted by adrenal cortex in times of stress (Cortisol); protein and carbohydrate metabolism to get energy for muscles
long term impact of glucocorticoidsincreased b.p., damage to muscles tissue, infertility, inhibition of growth, suppression of immune system, damage to hippocampus (memory problems), brain development stunted
posttraumatic stress disorderfirst exposure to a traumatic event, then 1.reexperienceing the trauma (flashbacks, nightmares) 2.avoidance (of reminders) 3. hyperarousal (cortisol reaction) 4.affective changes (depression, no social relating to others)
PTSD neurobiology(evidence for genetics), increased amygdala activity (fear), decreased pre-frontal cortex activity(not inhibiting), decreased hippocampus volume (*not processing trauma), cortisol increased, insular cotex increased
PTSD treatmentbenzodiazepines, SSRIs & SNRIs, CBT (most effective, exposure to the trauma)

Drug Abuse

Question Answer
intoxicationingestion of a psychoactive sucstance that causes cognitive, behavioral, physiological symptoms (reversible/short-term)
tolerancedrug loses effectiveness so require more (the body adapts to drug presence only after repeated use)
withdrawalphysiological or psychological reponse of not having the drug after chronic use
addiction/abuse/disordered useuse despite negative consequences, takes over life (can't stop thinking about it)
psychological mechanisms1.positive reinforcement (euphoria feelings make you more likely to do it again) 2. negative reinforcement (taking away bad feelings-anxiety, stress, depression sleep problems, pain) 3.classical condition (use in same setting, when body gets ready -cravings- when you go to this place because you are used to it, then body prepares for it -tolerance)
neural mechanism for tolerancereduce receptor site for the drug to make the effect less (more required to increase activity)
neural mechanism for withdrawaladjusted synapses no longer active when the chemical is removed
neural mechanisms for positive reinforcementbasal ganglia (connection made here), dopamine system (rely on reward system, ventral tegmental area forwards to nucleus accumbens, which makes you feel good), prefrontal cortex inhibition (not overriding your bad decisions)
neural mechanisms for negative reinforcementbasal ganglia (connection of context and behavior), GABA system (slows, reduced anxiety), endorphin system (pain management)
neural mechanisms for classical conditioningamygdala (lateral nucleus), connections made here
drug classesopiates, stimulates, depressants, hallucinogens
opiatesendogenous endorphin agonists (bind to natural endorphin receptors); analgestic, sedation, hypothermia, euphoria (ex-morphine, opium, heroin, oxycotin)
stimulatesdopamine agonists; euphora (ex-cocaine, caffeine, nicotine, adderall, Ritalin, methamphetamine)
depressantsGABA agonists, glutamate antagonists, endogenous endorphin agonists; learning and memory, sedation, relaxation, euphoria (minor) (ex-alcohol, barbituates, benzodiazepines)
hallucinogencanabinoid agonists, dopamine agonists, serotonin agonists; altered perception (hot hallucination), relaxation, euphoria (ex-marijuana, LSD, mushrooms)
drug abuse risk factorsgenetics (diathesis stress, sensitive to drug effects, enhanced response to conditioning); environment (exposure)
medical treatmentsagonist substitution (take safer/more controlled drug: methadone for heroin); antagonist (block positive effects of drug use: naltrexone); aversive (makes you sick: antabuse)

Recent badges