Behavior Science - Final - Part 1

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-12-04 15:13

Neurodevelopmental Disorders

Question Answer
A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by (1) inattention and/or (2) hyperactivity and impulsivity - 6 (or more) symptoms from 1 & 2 that have persisted for at least 6 months. Inconsistent with developmental level that nega­tively impacts social, academic, or occupational activities. Age of onset before 12 years. Adults need five symptoms. Behaviors must occur in at least two settingsADHD
Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat. Gets up from seat when staying seated is expected. Runs about or climbs when/where it is not appropriate. Has trouble playing or enjoying leisure activities quietly. Is often "on the go" or acts as if "driven". Talks excessively. Blurts out answers before questions have been finished. Trouble waiting one's turn. Interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., conversations or games)ADHD Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Type
Fails to attend to details or makes careless mistakes - Loses things needed for tasks and activities and is forgetful in daily activities. Difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play. Does not seem to listen when spoken to. Does not follow through on instructions. Fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace. Has difficulty organizing tasks and activities. Avoids tasks that require sustained mental effort. Easily distracted by extraneous stimuliADHD Inattention Type
A persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development, as characterized by (1) inattention and/or (2) hyperactivity and impulsivity - 6 (or more) symptoms from 1 and 6 (or more) symptoms from 2 that have persisted for at least 6 months. Inconsistent with developmental level that nega­tively impacts social, academic, or occupational activities. Age of onset before 12 years. Adults need five symptoms. Behaviors must occur in at least two settingsADHD Combined Type
Difficulties learning and using academic skills, indicated by at least one of the following symptoms for at least 6 months - Inaccurate, slow, effortful word reading. Difficulty understanding the meaning of what is read. Difficulties with spelling. Difficulties with written expression. Difficulties mastering number sense, number facts. Difficulties with mathematical reasoning. Skills are substantially and quantifiably below those expected for the individual’s age, and cause significant interference with academic or occupational performance, or with activities of daily living. For adults, a documented history may be substituted for the standardized assessment. The learning difficulties begin during school-age years, but may not become fully man­ifest until laterSpecific Learning Disorder
Trouble interpreting nonverbal cues like facial expressions and body language. Lack of coordination and balance (most often left side). Math difficulties. Often do well in verbal areas (eloquent, large vocabulary, etc.). Social inadequaciesNon-Verbal Learning Disorder
Difficulties with gross motor skills such combing hair or riding a bike. Problems planning, organizing and carrying out movements in the right order. Can affect speechDevelopmental Coordination Disorder (Dyspraxia)
Hearing is fine, but central auditory processing is affected. Trouble separating multiple sounds (speech vs. vacuum cleaner). Typically intermittent (?). Prefer oral instructions one at a time. May ask people to speak slowly. A complication is the person is often accused of not listeningAuditory Processing Disorder
Causes problems with reading and writing. Identifying speech sounds. Learning how sounds relate to letters and words. Intelligence isn't affected. Lifelong problem that cannot be “cured”. Improvement is possibleDyslexia
Can read known words, but not (phonetically) irregular wordsSurface Dyslexia
Reads words, but difficulty with processing sounds. Difficulty connecting symbols with sounds (especially non-words such as neb, cabe). Most common type. May occur with slow naming speed (double deficit)Phonological Dyslexia
Persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of language across modalities (spoken, written, sign language, other), including the following - Reduced vocabulary (word knowledge and use). Limited sentence structure (ability to form grammatical sentences). Impairments in discourse (ability to explain, describe, converse). Language abilities are substantially and quantifiably below those expected at that age. Onset of symptoms must be during early developmentLanguage Disorder
Persistent difficulty with speech sound production that interferes with speech intelligibility or prevents verbal communication of messages. Occurs during early developmental period and is not better explained by a general medical conditionSpeech Sound Disorder
Omission, distortions of sounds, or atypical pronunciation. Sound like they’re at a younger age. Initial screening by checking phoneme articulationSpeech Sound Disorder
Articulating sounds, Substitutions, Omissions, Distortions or AdditionsPhonetics
Organizing words in a sentence to make senseGrammar
Coherent organization of conceptsSemantics
Use of language and ‘rules’ of conversation (like when to pause, turn taking, context)Pragmatics
Disturbances in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that are inappropriate for the individual’s age and language skills, persist over time, and are characterized by frequent and marked occurrences of one (or more) of the following - Sound and syllable repetition. Sound prolongations of consonants as well as vowels. Broken words. Audible or silent blocking (filled or unfilled pauses in speech). Circumlocution (use of more words than necessary). Words produced with an excess of physical tension or struggle. Monosyllabic whole word repetitions (i.e. ‘I I I see you’). The disturbances cause anxiety about speaking, limitations in effective communication, social participation, academic performanceChild Onset Fluency Disorder
Difficulty in the acquisition and use of spoken and written language in social communication. May include non-verbal language (i.e., gesture). Not explained by low IQSocial (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
Persistent difficulties in the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication as manifested by all of the following - Deficits in social communication (e.g., greeting and sharing information). Impaired ability to change communication to match context or the needs of the listener (e.g., speaking differently in a classroom than on a playground. Difficulties following rules for conversation and storytelling (e.g., taking turns, rephrasing when misunderstood, and use verbal and nonverbal signals to regulate interaction). Difficulty making inferences, and understanding nonliteral or ambiguous meaning of language (e.g., idioms, humor, metaphors, meanings that depend on the context)Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
Rapid rate of speech (difficult to understand). Erratic rhythm. Poor syntax or grammar. Using words unrelated to the sentence. SpoonerismsCluttering (tachyphemia or tachyphrasia)
Greatly delayed or significant lack of social and language skills. Problems communicating with others and understanding language. Difficulty interpreting the actions and intentions of others. Ignoring or fail to understand other’s facial expressions. Reduced eye contactAutism Spectrum Disorder
Qualitative impairment in communication social interaction - Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity. Deficits in non-verbal communication behaviors. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships. Restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. Repetitive motor movements. Insistence on sameness. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus. Hyper- or Hyporeactivity to sensory input. Symptoms are not better accounted for by another condition, particularly intellectual disability (intellectual development disorder, i.e. retardation), or social communication disorder. Symptoms must manifest in early developmental periodAutism Spectrum Disorder
Early signs include No babbling by 12 months. No gesturing (pointing, waving goodbye, etc.) by 12 months. No single words by 16 months. No two-word spontaneous phrases (exc. echolalia) by 24 monthsAutism Spectrum Disorder
Language and cognitive development are mostly unaffected. Conversational skills are deficient. Physical ‘clumsiness’ is often present. May show intense interest in obscure objects or ideas. May perseverate on tasksAsperger's Syndrome
Normal development until age 3-4. Catastrophic loss of functioning in just a few months for. Social skills and awareness. Communication skillsChildhood Disintegration Disorder
Used to be the most common form of ASD. Late onset ASD (e.g., aged 10yrs)Pervasive Developmental Disorder NOS
Decelerated rate of head growth (Microcephaly), small hands and feet (from 5 months to 4 yrs although most occurrences are 6-18 months). Cognitive impairments and social difficulties. 80% also have seizures. Scoliosis, growth problems, difficulty in walking, stereotyped movements (hand wringing), breathing irregularities and GI disorders are associated symptoms. Genetic mutation - 95% is sporadic (i.e. not inherited). Germline mutations also occur. Almost exclusive to females. Males with the mutation rarely survive to term. Developmental progress stops and regression occursRett Syndrome
Overwhelming fear of loss of major attachment figure (parent, especially mom). Child complains of physical symptoms to avoid going to school. Have parent accompany child to school, gradually reducing the time spent there each day. These children at greater risk for adult anxiety disorders, particularly agoraphobiaSeparation Anxiety Disorder
Motor or vocal tics, but not both - Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder. Coordinated motor skills are significantly below the level expected for that age. Clumsiness, slow and inaccurate movements.Developmental Coordination Disorder
Repetitive, seemingly driven, and apparently purposeless motor behavior (even to the point of self injury). Ex: hand waving, body rocking, head banging, self hitting).Stereotypic Movement Disorder
Vocal and motor tics (must have both) for one year’s duration. Onset must be < 18yrs. 3x more prevalent in males. Copralalia (swearing) in only approx. 15%.Tourette’s Disorder


Question Answer
A stimulant which is a catecholamine reuptake inhibitor - Primarily DA is used to treat ADHDMethylphenidate
A stimulant which is an SSRI which is used to treat ADHDFluoxetine
A therapy treatment for ADHDFamily Centered Therapy
The catecholamine reuptake inhibitor Methylphenidate is used to treatADHD
The SSRI Fluoxetine is used to treatADHD