Behavior Science - Final - Diseases and Conditions

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-04-11 02:00

Disorders and Conditions

Question Answer
Persistent eating of nonnutritive, nonfood substances over a period of 1 month. B. The eating of nonnutritive substances is inappropriate to the developmental level of the individual. Higher incidence in children diagnosed with intellectual disability. Poisoning, toxicity, infections, and malnutritionPICA
Repeated regurgitation of food over a period of at least 1 month. Regurgitated food may be re-swallowed, re-chewed or spit out. B. The repeated regurgitation is not attributable to an associated GI or other medical condition. The regurgitation is ‘effortless’ and is not accompanied by the physical discomforts associated with vomiting. Vomitting typically occurs within 30 seconds to 1 hour after completion of the mealRumination Disorder
Avoiding or restricting food intake to the point of one or more of the following: 1. Weight loss 2. Nutritional deficiencies 3. Dependence on enteral feeding or oral nutritional supplements 4. Marked interference with psychosocial functioning.Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
Characterized by extreme low body weight. Distorted body image. Obsessive fear of weight gain. 1. Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements, leading to a significantly low body weight in the context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health. Significantly low weight is defined as a weight that is less than minimally normal or, for children or adolescents, less than that minimally expected. 2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain, even though underweight. 3. Disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or persistent lack of recognition of the seriousness of the current low body weight. Treatment includes weight gain (forced if necessary), psychotherapy, family therapy, drug therapy (Zinc).Anorexia Nervosa
Anorexia nervosa with during the last 3 months the person has not engaged in recurrent episodes of binge eating or purging behavior. Weight loss is done primarily through dieting, fasting and/or excessive exerciseAnorexia nervosa with Restricting (without purging)
Anorexia nervosa that during the last 3 months the person has engaged in recurrent binge eating/purging.Anorexia nervosa with Binge eating/purging
Signs and symptoms - Distortion of body image along with extreme weight loss, stunted growth, amenorrhea, decreased libido, bradycardia, hypotension, thinning hair, growth of lanugo* hair, decreased white blood cell count, decreased immune system, pallid complexion, sunken eyes, headaches, easily bruised, poor circulation (and others)Anorexia nervosa
Consuming large quantities of food in a short (< 2 hrs) period of time. Recurrent episodes of binge eating. An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following: 1. Eating, in a discrete period of time, an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat under similar circumstances. 2. A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating. B. The binge eating episodes are associated with 3 or more of the following: 1. Eating much more rapidly than normal. 2. Eating until feeling uncomfortably full. 3. Eating large amounts of food when not hungry. 4. Eating alone because of being embarrassed by how much one is eating. 5. Feeling disgusted with oneself, depressed, or feeling very guilty after overeating. C. Marked distress regarding binge eating. D. Binge eating occurs, on average, at least 1 day a week for a 3 month period. E. Binge eating is not associated with the regular use of inappropriate compensatory behaviors (purging, fasting, excessive exercise) and does not occur exclusively during the course of anorexia nervosa or bulimia.Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
Have non-specific eating disorder (ED-NOS), but differ from anorexics in that they are satisfied/pleased with their weight lossWannarexia
In most cases, recurrent binge eating followed by purging. Onset typically during adolescence, mostly female. Chronic gastric reflux, dehydration, cavities, esophagitis, pancreatitis, perimolysis, peptic ulcers, hypokalimea, lacerations of mouth and throat, electrolyte imbalance (potentially affecting heart function), Swollen salivary glands, Bloating, Abdominal pains, Constipation, Drug-related (addiction, seizures, mood changes). Recurrent episodes of binge eating. An episode of binge eating is characterized by both of the following: 1. Eating, in a discrete period of time, an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat under similar circumstances. 2. A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode (a feeling that one cannot stop eating or control what or how much one is eating. B. Recurrent inappropriate compensatory behavior to prevent weight gain, such as: vomiting; laxatives, emetics, diuretics, or other medications; fasting; excessive exercise. C. These symptoms occur at least once a week on average and persist for at least 3 months. D. Self-evaluation is unduly influenced by body shape and weight. E. The disturbance does not occur exclusively during episodes of anorexia.Bulimia Nervosa
Binge eating and purging (purging as defined earlier)Bulimia Nervosa with Purging
Binge eating with excessive exercise or dieting, but no vomitingBulimia Nervosa with Non-Purging
Characterized by weight loss (and muscle atrophy, fatigue, weakness, loss of appetite) in persons not trying to lose weight. Cannot be reversed nutritionally. Associated with disease processes (cancer, infection, etc.).Cachexia
Age of onset before 12 yrs old. At least 6 symptoms present for six months in children, adults need 5). 1. Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat. 2. Often gets up from seat when staying seated is expected. 3. Often runs about or climbs when and where it is not appropriate. 4. Often has trouble playing or enjoying leisure activities quietly. 5. Is often "on the go" or often acts as if "driven by a motor". 6. Often talks excessively. 7. Often blurts out answers before questions have been finished. 8. Often has trouble waiting one's turn. 9. Often interrupts or intrudes on others (e.g., butts into conversations or games).ADHD Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type
Age of onset before 12 yrs old. At least 6 symptoms present for six months in children, adults need 5). 1. Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities. 2. Often has difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. 3. Often does not seem to listen when spoken to directly. 4. Often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace. 5. Often has difficulty organizing tasks and activities . 6. Often avoids engaging in tasks that require sustained mental effort (i.e. schoolwork). 7. Often loses things needed for tasks and activities. 8. Often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli. 9. Often forgetful in daily activities.ADHD Predominantly Inattentive Type
Diagnosis requires 6/9 symptoms from both Inattentive type and Hyperactive typeADHD Combined Type
Difficulty learning or using academic skills, as indicated by the presence of at least one of the following symptoms that has been present at least 6 months, despite the provision of interventions that target those difficulties such as inaccurate or slow reading, lack of comprehension of what’s read, poor spelling, difficulties with writing, problems with number comprehension, calculation, and mathematical reasoning. The affected academic skills are substantially and quantifiably below those expected for the individual’s chronological age. Can be further classified by problem area (reading, writing, math), and also by degree of severity (mild, moderate, severe).Specific Learning Disorder
Lack of coordination (most often left side), social inadequacies, balance problems, math difficulties. Usually do quite well in verbal areas (eloquent, large vocabulary, etc.). Very similar to High Functioning autismNonverbal LD (NVLD)
Difficulties with motor skills (simple like combing hair, or complex like teeth brushing). Can affect speech.Dyspraxia
‘Hearing’ is fine, but central processing affected. Trouble separating multiple sounds (like speech vs. A/C or the vacuum cleaner). Typically affects the individual intermittently (i.e. not constantly). Often leads to DyslexiaAuditory processing disorder (APD)
Can read known words but not irregular words (i.e. muscle, you, said, what, country, colonel)Surface Dyslexia
Can read regular and irregular words, but have difficulty with non-words and with sounding out wordsPhonological Dyslexia
Slow naming speed. Occurs with Phonological DyslexiaDouble deficit
Persistent difficulties in the acquisition and use of language across modalities (spoken, written, sign language, other), including the following - Reduced vocabulary, limited sentence structure, impairments in discourse. Language abilities are below those expected at that age, and onset of symptoms must be during early developmental period.Language Disorder
Persistent difficulty with speech sound production that interferes with speech intelligibility or prevents verbal communication of messages. Occurs during early developmental period and is not better explained by a general medical condition. Omission or distortions of sounds, atypical pronunciation. Sound like they’re at a younger age. Can be determined in part by checking articulation (i.e. age 3 can articulate m,n, ng, b, p, h, t, k, d).Speech Sound Disorder
Speech prolonged by involuntary repetitions and prolongation of sounds. Disturbances in the normal fluency and time patterning of speech that are inappropriate for the individual’s age and language skills, persist over time, and are characterized by frequent and marked occurrences of one (or more) of the following (see next slide) - The disturbances cause anxiety about speaking, limitations in effective communication, social participation, academic performance, etc. 1. Sound and syllable repetition. 2. Sound prolongations of consonants as well as vowels. 3. Broken words. 4. Audible or silent blocking (filled or unfilled pauses in speech). 5. Circumlocution. 6. Words produced with an excess of physical tension. 7. Monosyllabic whole word repetitionsChild Onset Fluency Disorder
Persistent difficulties in the social use of verbal and nonverbal communication as manifested by all of the following (see next slide) - While the onset of symptoms must be in early developmental period, the condition might not be noticed until social communication demands exceed the individual’s limited capabilities. 1. Deficits in using communication for social purposes (even just saying hello), in a manner that is appropriate for the social context. 2. Impairment of the ability to change communication (from classroom to playground). 3. Difficulty in following the rules for conversation and story telling. 4. Difficulties understanding what is not explicitly stated (i.e. making inferences).Social (Pragmatic) Communication Disorder
A fluency problem (rapid speech, poor syntax, erratic rhythm).Cluttering
Super ‘Tip of the Tongue’Dysnomia
“Is it kisstomary to cuss the bride” instead of ‘customary to kiss the bride”. Seen in clutteringSpoonerisms
“Sure, I’d love to go to breast” instead of ‘sure, I’d love to go to brunch’. Seen in clutteringParapraxis (Freudian slips)
Much delayed or significant lack of social and language skills. 2. Problems communicating with others and understanding language. 3. Ignore or fail to understand facial expressions. 4. Reduced eye contact in social situations. A. Qualitative impairment in communication social interaction: 1. Deficits in social-emotional reciprocity. 2. Deficits in non-verbal communication behaviors. 3. Deficits in developing, maintaining, and understanding relationships. B. Restricted/repetitive stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests and activities (RRB’s) - 1. Stereotyped or repetitive motor movements. 2. Insistence on sameness. 3. Highly restricted, fixated interests that are abnormal in intensity or focus. 4. Hyper- or Hyporeactivity to sensory input. If no RRB’s are present, diagnosis would be social communication disorderAutism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Decelerated rate of head growth (Microcephaly), small hands and feet (from 5 months to 4 yrs although most occurrences are 6-18 months). Cognitive impairments and social difficulties. 80% also have seizures. Scoliosis, growth problems, difficulty in walking, stereotyped movements (hand wringing), and GI disorders are associated symptoms. Genetic mutation - 95% is sporadic (i.e. not inherited). Germline mutations also occur. Almost exclusive to females. Males with the mutation rarely survive to term. Developmental progress stops and regression occursRett Syndrome
Overwhelming fear of loss of major attachment figure (parent, especially mom). Child complains of physical symptoms to avoid going to school. Have parent accompany child to school, gradually reducing the time spent there each day. These children at greater risk for adult anxiety disorders, particularly agoraphobiaSeparation Anxiety Disorder
Rare, child speaks in some social situations but not others (i.e. at home but not at school). More common in girls. Must be distinguished from normal shyness, and actual speech/language disorders.Selective mutism
A sudden, rapid, recurrent, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization.Tic
Vocal and motor tics (must have both) for one year’s duration. Onset must be < 18yrs. 3x more prevalent in males. Copralalia (swearing) in only approx. 15%.Tourette’s disorder
Motor or vocal tics, but not both - Persistent (chronic) motor or vocal tic disorder. Coordinated motor skills are significantly below the level expected for that age. Clumsiness, slow and inaccurate movements.Developmental Coordination Disorder
Repetitive, seemingly driven, and apparently purposeless motor behavior (even to the point of self injury). Ex: hand waving, body rocking, head banging, self hitting).Stereotypic Movement Disorder

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