Behavior Science - Block 3 - Terminology, Definitions and Treatment Medications

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-11-30 03:22

Terminology and Definitions


Question Answer
Short term confusion and changes in cognitionDelirium
Severe and permanent impairment in memory, judgment, orientation and cognitionDementia
Memory impairment and forgetfulnessAmnesia
Evidence of significant cognitive decline from a previous level of performance in one or more cognitive domains that interferes with capacity for independenceMajor Neurocognitive Disorder (NCD)
Patient clearly has some cognitive decline, but it does not interfere with capacity for independenceMinor Neurocognitive Disorder (NCD)
Loss of the ability to produce or understand languageAphasia
The inability to make certain movements, despite a healthy bodyApraxia
Problems recognizing familiar persons and objects, even though the senses are functioningAgnosia
Inability to plan, organize or reasonExecutive Dysfunction
Knowledge of facts and what they meanExplicit/Declarative Memory
Involves information about how to perform something. Used ‘unconsciously’. Rarely affected in amnesic statesImplicit/Non-Declarative Memory
Memory lasting for secondsWorking Memory
Short term memory lasts forMinutes
Long term memory lasts forYears
Symptoms seen in a diseased condition not present in a healthy personPositive
Symptoms seen in a healthy person not present in a diseased conditionNegative
Misperception of real stimuliIllusion
False belief not shared by cultureDelusion
Sensory impression or activation without actual stimuliHallucination
Complete lack of speechAlogia
Lack of desire to pursue meaningful goalsAvolution
Inability to experience pleasureAnhedonia
A sign unique to one diseasePathognomonic
Preceding the diseasePremorbid
Early, non specific symptom(s) that may indicate the start of a diseaseProdromal
Involves a totally implausible phenomenon. (Aliens have stolen my internal organs)Bizarre Delusional
Means delusions are ‘believable’ i.e. could happen in real life. (The police have my apartment under surveillance).Non-bizarre Delusional
An episode of mania that does not meet full criteria for a manic episodeHypomania
Less severe form of bipolar disorderCyclothymia
Less severe form of major depression. Now called Persistent Depressive DisorderDysthymia
A mental state in which an organism forced to endure aversive stimuli becomes unable or unwilling to avoid subsequent encounters with those stimuli, even if they are escapable, presumably because it has learned that it cannot control the situationLearned Helplessness

Treatment Medications

Question Answer
Doperminergic antagonists - Chlorpromazine, Haloperidol, Perphenazine, Fluphenazine are examples of these medicationsTypical Anti-Psychotics
These types of medications are used for positive symptoms. They are Ineffective for negative symptoms. Side effects include Muscle stiffness, Tremor or Abnormal movementsTypical Anti-Psychotics
These types of medicaations are the “tranquilizers”. Both D2 and 5-HT antagonists. Exact differences between typical and atypical unknown. Generally preferred for initial treatment. Side effects include Weight gain, Agranulocytosis, Myocarditis or Extrapyramidal Side Effects - Tardive dyskinesia (uncontrolled, irregular, jerky movements), Dystonia (continuous spasms and muscle contractions), Parkinson’s like symptomsAtypical Anti-Psyschotics
Clozapine, Risperidone, Olanzapine are examples of these medicationsAtypical Anti-Psyschotics
Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder can potentially be treated with thisSSRIs
Catatonia when comorbid with affective disorders highly effectively (normally within 3-hours) treated withBenzodiazepines
Catatonia can be treated with this if drug resistant ECT
Binds to alpha1 - GABA receptorsClonazepam
Increasing NE and 5-HT in certain CNS regions. Impede reuptake of NE and 5-HT. Safe and effective for up to 80% of patientsTCA
Highly anticholinergic and avoided when presence of cardioconduction disturbance, Heart disease and ElderlyTCA
Most popular treatment for depression in the U.S. Considered an improvement over TCA. Fewer side effects. Less harm if overdosed. Use TCA’s if contraindicated or side effectsSSRI
5-HT reuptake inhitors. FluoxetineSSRI
5-HT and NE reuptake inhibitors. Venlafaxine, desvenlafaxine, and duloxetineSNRI
FDA black box warnings (on all antidepressants) still in place. May raise blood pressure. May worsen liver problems. Can cause dangerously high levels of serotoninSNRI
Inhibits the action of the enzyme is to removes NE, 5-HT, and DA. Can cause dangerously high blood pressure with certain foods. Can interact with other medsMAOI
Procedure is done under a general anesthesia. Small currents are used to trigger a brief seizureECT
Can provide rapid, significant improvements for severe Depression, Severe mania, Catatonia, Agitation and aggression in people with dementiaECT
Can be used for pregnant women when medications can't be taken. Older adults who can't tolerate drug side effectsECT
5-HT1α agonist. No known risk of dependence. No known risk of with withdrawal. Generally used to treat Generalized Anxiety DisorderBuspirone
Benzodiazepines that bind to GABAA α1 receptors produce this effectHypnotic Effect
Benzodiazepines that bind to GABAA α2 and/or α3 receptors produce this effectAnxiolytic effects
An atypical DA/NE reuptake inhibitor sometimes used to treat Body Dysmorphic DisorderBuproprion


Question Answer
Antilirium is given to reverse anticholinergic toxicity is used to treatDelirium
Haldol (Haloperidol) is a long time anti-psychotic, D2 antagonist. Typical’ antipsychotic used to treatSchizophrenia
Clonazepam (Benzodiazepine) is used to treatREM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Clozapine (Atypical antipsychotic) because it interacts with both 5-HT and DA. Excess 5-HT levels correlated with +ive and –ive symptoms. But has serious potential side effects (agranulocytosis and myocarditis) is used to treatSchizophrenia
GABA may also be involved, interacts with both Serotonin (5-HT) and Dopamine (DA) systemsSchizophrenia
Glutamate is used to treatPhencyclidine Induced Schizophrenia-like Condition
Smoking to increase acetylcholine because of a decrease in nicotinic receptors could be a self-treatment forSchizophrenia
Typical DA Medications are a family of DA drugs that work directly on DA which include Chlorpromazine (Thorazine), Haloperidol (Haldol), Perphenazine (Etrafon, Trilafon), Fluphenazine (Prolixin) that are effective for positive symptoms but not so good with negative symptoms are used to treatSchizophrenia
Atypical DA Medications are a family of DA drugs that work on serotonin instead of DA directly which include Clozapine (Clozaril) Risperidone (Risperdal) Olanzapine (Zyprexia) are used to treatSchizophrenia
Lithium - Effective stabilizer, around a long time, side effects include tremor, weight gain, GI issues. Periodic blood tests required for potential liver or thyroid issues is used to treatBipolar Disorder
Mood-stabilizing antipsychotics (Olanzapine, Risperidone) may be effective for treatingBipolar Disorder
Combination of an antidepressant-antipsychotics (Fluoxetine + Olanzapine) may work (although might trigger manic episodes, and loss of libido as a side effect)Bipolar Disorder
Stereotactic ablation of the anterior cingulum has been effective for drug-resistantOCD
Vagal nerve stimulation increases NE and 5-HT, may be effectiveDepression
ECT can be used to treat this if other therapies are ineffectiveDepression
Diazepam (Valium)Anxiety, Insomnia
Triazolam (Halcion)Insomnia
Alprazolam (Xanax)Panic Disorder, Anxiety
SSRI is typically first choice strategy; SNRI if SSRIs do not work; Benzodiazepines (α2, α3) if SSRIs and SNRI do not work. Benzodiazepines are used on a short-term basis because of potential of habit-forming.Panic Disorder
Lorazepam (Ativan)Anxiety, Alcohol-related Seizures
Chlordiazepoxide (Librium)Alcohol Detox
BuspironeGeneralized Anxiety Disorder
Wellbutrin (buproprion) is an atypical antidepressant (DA/NE uptake inhibitor) often used along with an SSRI and CBT therapy for treatment of thisBody Dismorphic Disorder
TCAs were the first generation of medications for treatment of thisDepression
Buproprion and SSRIs can be used to treatBody Dysmorphic Disorder

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