Behavior Science - Block 3 - Part 1

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-11-13 23:08

Sleep Disorders

Question Answer
Lasts 1-7 mins. People usually claim they were not asleep if “woken”. Alpha waves predominateStage 1 (N1) Sleep
Is the first true stage of sleep (i.e., light sleep). EEG shows sleep spindles (12-14 Hz) and K-complexes (~0.8Hz)Stage 2 (N2) Sleep
Moderately deep sleep. Decreased heart rate and respiration. Difficult to wake from Stage 3. EEG characterized by. Sleep spindles. Delta waves (1.6-4Hz)Stage 3 (N3) Sleep
EEG is dominated by slow, large amplitude, delta waves. Muscle tone is only slightly decreased. Reflexes are intact (sleep-walking can occur). Takes up ~25% of sleep (but decreases with age)Stage 4 (N3) Sleep
Somatic inhibition (“paralysis”)...but EEG looks like an awake person! (i.e., paradoxical sleep). Most vivid dreams occur during REM sleep. Quick, random eye movements. 3-5 cycles per night. Cycles increase in length. 25% of total sleep (but decreases with age). 90-120 mins in totalREM Sleep
Loss of REM sleep one night increases REM sleep the following nightREM Rebound
Circadian rhythms are controlled by theHypothalamic Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN)
Ratio of total sleep time and total “in bed” timeSleep Efficiency
Period from turning out lights to Stage II sleepSleep Latency
Period between onset of sleep and the first REM periodREM Latency
Increased sleep efficiency and REM sleepIncreased ACh
Increased sleep efficiency and N3Increased 5-HT
Decreased sleep efficiencyIncreased DA
Decreased sleep efficiency and REM sleepIncreased NE
Persistent difficulty falling asleep or staying asleepInsomnia
Difficulty falling asleep, maintaining sleep, early waking up for at least 3 months and 3 nights per weekInsomnia
Treatment for _________ include deconditioning (sleep in other bed), massage, light exercise, meditation, sexInsomnia
Medication treatment for ___________ include benzodiazepines, melatonin, antihistamines, neurolepticsInsomnia
Problems falling asleepSleep Onset Insomnia (Initial Insomnia)
Problems with staying asleepSleep Maintenance Insomnia (Middle Insomnia)
Early morning awakening with difficulty getting back to sleepLate Insomnia
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) or excessive sleepHypersomnolence Disorder
Excessive sleepiness despite a main sleep period lasting at least 7 hours, with one of the following: Recurrent periods of sleep, or lapses into sleep within the same day. A prolonged main sleep episode of more than 9 hrs/day that is non-restorative. Difficulty being fully awake after abrupt awakening. Must occur 3x/week for 3 monthsHypersomnolence Disorder
Treatment could be using amphetamines or in some cases SSRIsHypersomnolence Disorder
Recurring periods of excessive sleepiness and eating. Person feels tired, goes to bed for 24 hrs or more, getting up only to eat and use bathroom. Hyperphagia common during episodes. Also possible hyper sexualityKlein-Levin Syndrome (Sleeping Beauty Syndrome)
Recurrent periods of an irrepressible need to sleep, lapsing into sleep, or napping occurring within the same day (3x/wk for 3 months) along with the presence of at least one of the following: Episodes of cataplexy. Spontaneous grimaces or jaw-opening episodes with tongue thrusting or a global hypotonia (within 6 months of onset)Narcolepsy
Possibly due to low/no production of hypocretin/orexinNarcolepsy
Triggered by strong emotional stimuli, ie. laughter, excitement, anger, sex) and can last 20sec-20min. A sudden loss of muscle tone which could involve one or all musclesCataplexy
Treatment with modafinil and sodium oxybate and stimilantsNarcolepsy
Treatment with antidepressant can be effective at controlling this symptom that is usually comorbid with NarcolepsyCataplexy
Intense, vivid, dreamlike experiences that occur just before falling asleepNight Terrors
Intense, vivid, dreamlike experiences that occur just after waking upHypnopompic Hallucinations
Excessive relaxation of pharyngeal muscles resulting in snoring or restriction/collapse of the upper airwayObstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea
Interference with Stage 3 and 4 sleep results in daytime sleepiness. Lots of snoring. Most common type, 8:1 ratio M to F. Respiratory acidosis may occurObstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea
Requires 5 or more episodes of non-breathing per hour. Repeated episodes of apneas and hypo-apneas during sleep caused by variability in respiratory effort, but without evidence of airway obstructionCentral Sleep Apnea
Cheyne-Stokes breathing pattern that causes repeated episodes of apneas and hypo-apneas can be seenCentral Sleep Apnea
Failure to breath rapidly enough, or deeply enough, in obese people. Cessation of breathing during sleep will result in repeated awakenings, leading to EDS. Breathing problems also happen while awake, causing hypercapnea (increased blood CO2 levels)Obesity Hypoventilation Syndrome
Repeated awakenings due to nightmares. Detailed recall of extremely frightening dreamsNightmare disorder
Occurs during non-REM (Stage 3/4) sleep. Usually only in childrenSleepwalking
Occur during Stage 3/4 sleep. Non specific feelings of terror. Occurs during first 1/3 of the evening’s sleepNight Terrors
Acting out dreams, grunting thrashing. Occurs during REM sleep. usually in men 60 yrs and older. The atonia, or sleep paralysis normally found during REM sleep, is not functioning properly in REM behavior disorderREM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Effectively treated with clonazepam (benzodiazepine)REM Sleep Behavior Disorder
Ordinarily, this projects to the reticulospinal neurons that - Inhibitory neurons. The inhibit motor neuron activityMedullary DRAS
Characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs, most common in calf area. Occurs when person lies down or sits for extended periods. Persons feel ‘an uncontrollable urge’ to move or massage the affected areaRestless Leg Syndrome
Stereotyped contractions of leg muscles (extension of toes, flexion of ankle and knee). Person may not notice, but may complain of insomnia or poor sleepNocturnal Myoclonus
Teeth grinding. Usually during stage 2 sleepBruxism
Sleep-related head banging. Rhythmic head and maybe body rockingJactatio Capitis Nocturnis
Ranges from mumbling to complicated dialogues/conversations. Most common in males and children. Can result from a number of factors (stress,depression, sleep deprivation) and does seem to run in families. Short durationSleep Talking (Somniloquy)
Onset at midlife. Sleepless nights until coma and death (5-10 months after onset). Prion diseaseFatal Familial Insomnia

Eating Disorders

Question Answer
Persistent eating of nonnutritive, nonfood substances >1 month. Eating is inappropriate to the developmental level of personPica
Repeated regurgitation of food over a period of at least 1 month. Regurgitated food may be re-swallowed, re-chewed or spat out. Regurgitation is not attributable a biologically recognized medical condition. Typically from 30 seconds to 1 hour after eatingRumination Disorder
A problem with eating or feeding. Disinterest in food or eating. Repulsion to certain foods. Fears about aversive effects of eating. Inability to take in adequate nutrition. Major nutritional deficiency. Substantial weight loss (or lack of normal weight gain). Dependence on enteral feeding or oral supplements. Impaired psychosocial function. Not due to body image disturbance. Anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa. Not due to other medical problems or psychiatric disordersAvoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder
Rapid weight loss and very low body weight. Distorted body image and obsessive fear of weight gain. Obsessive preoccupation with food/calories. Skipping meals and avoiding eating with others. Excessive exercise (hypergymnasia). Possible binge eating. Possible purging. Possible OCD. Secondary characteristics include menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea. Depressed mood disorders. Fractures. Heart problemsAnorexia Nervosa
Restriction of energy intake relative to requirement, leading to significantly low body weight (lower than minimal by age/sex). Intense fear of gaining weight or of becoming fat, leading to persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain. Disturbance in perceived body weight or shape, leading to lack of recognition of the seriousness of one’s own healthAnorexia Nervosa
Binging on large amounts of food, alone or secretively. Loss of control over eating. Dissatisfaction with body shape/weight. Feelings of shame (secrecy over behaviors). May self-induced vomiting. Intermittent starvation. Excessive exercise. Abuse of laxatives, diuretics, or diet pills. Usually normal weight or even overweightBulimia Nervosa
Mostly overweight or obese (but could be normal). Eat unusually large amounts within a specific time. Feeling that their behavior is out of control. Eating when full up and uncomfortable. Eating rapidly. Eating alone or in secret. Possible feelings of Depression, Disgust, Shame and/or Guilt.Binge Eating Disorder
Eating, in a discrete period of time (e.g. 2hr period), an amount of food that is definitely larger than most people would eat. A sense of lack of control over eating during the episode. Episodes are associated with three or more of the following - Eating much faster than normal. Eating until uncomfortably full. Eating large amounts when not hungry. Eating alone due to embarrassed. Feelings of disgust, depression, and/or guilt. Marked distress regarding binge eating. Occurs, on average, at least once a week for three months. Not associated with compensatory behaviors or occur exclusively during the course of bulimia nervosa or anorexia nervosaBinge Eating Disorder
Weight that is higher than what is considered as a healthy weight for a given height is described asObesity
Very rare, characterized by polyphagia, food preoccupation, shortness and learning disabilitiesPrader-Willi Syndrome
Ciliopathic disorder with obesity but also retardation, hypogonadism, and retinitis pigmentosaBardet-Biedl Syndrome
Lack of thyroid hormone productionHypothyroidism
Overproduction of cortisolCushing’s Disease
Progressive weight loss. Muscle atrophy. Fatigue. Loss of appetite. Sufferer not trying to lose weight. Cannot be reversed nutritionally. Could be caused by Cancer, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Multiple sclerosis, Motor neuron disease, HIV/AIDSCachexia

Recent badges