Behavior Science - Block 2 - Part 1

davidwurbel7's version from 2015-10-28 16:03

Patient Interviewing

Question Answer
First thing you do when you first meet a patientIntroduction
The reason why a patient is there to see youChief Complaint
You want to these types of questionsOpen-Ended Questions
Interviewing technique in which the doctor repeats what the patient is saying. This allows the patient to clarify or correct informationReflection Technique
Interviewing technique in which the doctor says small, short phases to let the patient know that they are interested. Any verbal or non-verbal queue that makes it easier for a patient to continue to talkFacilitation
Interviewing technique in which the doctor asks a question and then does not say anything after that. This will raise anxiety level in the patient until they speakSilence
Interviewing technique in which the doctor asks a question about what the patient said so that the doctor can understandClarification
Interviewing technique in which the doctor translates information to the patient so that the patient can understandInterpretation
Interviewing technique in which the doctor restates the story the patient had told the doctor. The doctor takes a lot of information which the patient told them and highlights the main pointsSummation
Interviewing technique in which the doctor tells the patient exactly what is going to happen or what happened in detail. Mostly useful for surgical proceduresExplanation
Interviewing technique in which the doctor lets the patient know verbally or non-verbally that they are finished with one portion of the interview and are moving on to the next section of the interviewTransition
Interviewing technique in which the doctor reveals information about themselves to the patient. Generally, not an advised techniqueSelf - Revelation
Interviewing technique in which the doctor rewards the patient for behavior. Patients may continue the behavior more readilyPositive Reinforcement
Interviewing technique in which the doctor reassures the patient or family members by telling them what is possible but still giving them hopeTruthful Reassurance
Interviewing technique in which the doctor suggests the course of action which the patient may follow. Giving the patient informationAdvice

Abnormal Behavior

Question Answer
Become increasingly clear that both biological, psychological and social causes are involved in the origin of many psychological disordersBiopsychosocial Model
Things that can exacerbate a psychological disorderPsychosocial and Contectual Factors


Question Answer
Cognitive ability of an individual to learn from experience, to reason well, and to cope with the demands of daily living.Intelligence
Effective problem solving, use of language in problem solving, and ability to adapt to environmental changeIntelligence
The test measures what it is supposed to measureValidity
The test will produce similar results repeatedlyReliability
There are specific ways of administering the exam which are followed in all administrationsStandardization
The scores from the standardization group against which all others who take the test can be comparedNorms
Assessment of intellectual abilities was first measured byBinet
Binet’s test adapted for American children, IQ = (MA/CA) * 100 where CA cannot exceed 15Stanford-Binet Test
Developed multiple intellectual tests one for adults, one for children, and one for preschool age childrenWechsler
Intellectual test used for adults (Age 15 and above)Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
Intellectual test used for child (Age 5 to 14)Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
Intellectual test used for preschool age children (Age Under 5)Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI)
Refers to mental processes rather than specific information (declines with age)Fluid Intelligence
Refers to a person's knowledge base (increases with age)Crystallized Intelligence
This part of intelligence increases throughout the person's life spanCrystallized Intelligence
This part of intelligence increases and then plateau at age 30Long-Term Memory Retrieval
This part of intelligence stays relatively the same throughout the person's life spanGeneral Intelligence
This part of intelligence increases up to age 25, decreases sharply until early 30s and then declines slowly throughout the rest of the person's life spanVisual Processing
This part of intelligence slowly declines throughout the person's life spanFluid Intelligence
This part of intelligence increases up to age 25 and then declines slowly throughout the rest of the person's life spanProcessing Speed
50 to 70 IQ. 85% of ID population. “Educable”. Academic level- 6th grade. Holds job, makes change, lives independently, self supporting. Adaptive function severity= mildIntellectual Disability - Mild
35 to 50 IQ. 10% of ID population. “Trainable”. Academic level-2nd grade. Makes small change. Can work and live in sheltered setting with supervisionIntellectual Disability - Moderate
20 to 35 IQ. 4% of ID population. Academic level-below 1st. Can use coin machines. Can perform basic self care but needs constant supervision Intellectual Disability - Severe
20 and below IQ. 1-2% of ID population. Academic level-BELOW 1st. Poor language skills. Limited self care. Dependent on othersIntellectual Disability - Profound
Trisomy 21, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, Fragile X are the top three causes of thisIntellectual Disability

Disruptive Disorders in Children

Question Answer
A pattern of negativistic, hostile and defiant behavior lasting greater than 6 months of which you have 4 or more of the following - Loses temper. Argues with adults. Actively defies or refuses to comply with rules. Often deliberately annoys people. Blames others for his/her mistakes. Often touchy or easily annoyed with others. Often angry and resentful. Often spiteful or vindictive. Prevalence-3-10%. Male to female - 2-3 -> 1. Symptoms must have persisted for 6 month. Children <5 years symptoms should occur most days. Children >5 years symptoms should occur at least weekly. Symptoms outside the range for normative developmental level, gender and culture. Mild - symptoms occur in only one setting. Moderate - symptoms occur in at least two settings. Severe - symptoms occur in three or more settingsOppositional Defiant Disorder
Aggression toward people or animals. Bullies or intimidates, Initiates fights, Cruelty to people or animals, Sexual aggression. Destruction of property. Deceitfulness or Theft - Cons others. Serious violation of rules - Running away and/or truancy. Should have demonstrated three or more symptoms in the past 12 months. One symptom should have occurred in the past 6 months. Prevalence-1.5-3.4%. Boys greatly outnumber girls (3-5:1)Conduct Disorder
Child with Conduct Disorder under the age of 10Conduct Disorder - Childhood Onset
Child with Conduct Disorder over the age of 10Conduct Disorder - Adolescent Onset
Child with Conduct Disorder with unknown age of onsetConduct Disorder - Unspecified Onset
Exhibiting persistent irritability and severe behavioral outbursts 3 or more times per week for more than 1 year. The mood in between temper outbursts is persistently negative (irritable, angry, or sad), which is observable by others, and the tantrums and negative mood are present in at least 2 settings onset of illness has to be before age 10 years and in a child with a chronological or developmental age of at least 6 yearsDisruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder (DMDD)

Substance Abuse

Question Answer
Recurrent use of alcohol resulting in a failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home (e.g., repeated absences or poor work performance related to alcohol use; alcohol-related absences, suspensions, or expulsions from school; neglect of children or household). Recurrent alcohol use in situations in which it is physically hazardous (e.g., driving an automobile or operating a machine when impaired by alcohol use). Recurrent alcohol-related legal problems (e.g., arrests for alcohol-related disorderly conduct). Continued alcohol use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of alcohol (e.g., arguments with spouse about consequences of intoxication). Need for markedly increased amounts of alcohol to achieve intoxication or desired effect; or markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of alcohol. The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for alcohol; or drinking (or using a closely related substance) to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms. Drinking in larger amounts or over a longer period than intended. Persistent desire or one or more unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking. Important social, occupational, or recreational activities given up or reduced because of drinking. A great deal of time spent in activities necessary to obtain, to use, or to recover from the effects of drinking. Continued drinking despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to be caused or exacerbated by drinkingAlcohol Use Disorder
Alcohol use disorder with 2-3 symptomsMild
Alcohol use disorder with 4-5 symptomsModerate
Alcohol use disorder with 6 or more symptomsSevere
The inability to remember events that occurred during the time one was under the influenceBlackout
Highly addictive substance that is manufactured in the body by combining Acetaldeyde and DopamineTetrahydroisoquinoline
Drug that inhibits Acetaldehyde DehydrogenaseDisulfiram
Drug that induces redness and possibly vomiting after drinking due to acetaldehyde build up in the bodyDisulfiram

Personality Disorders

Question Answer
Ideas of Reference. Suspicious. Emotionally Restricted. Does not lose contact with reality. Feels that world is a dangerous place and they keep a constant lookout for danger. Defense mechanism is projection. Treated with benzodiazepines for anxiety and agitation; Antipsychotics if severeParanoid Personality Disorder
Cold and Aloof. Reserved and Uninvolved. Self-absorbed. Does not need to part of a group. Their thinking is inward. Never lonely. Defense mechanism is schizoid fantasy. Treated by low dose antipsychoticsSchizoid Personality Disorder
ODD Thinking. ODD Behavior. ODD Communication. Magical Thinking. Superstitious. Can read other people's body language very well. Defense mechanism is schizoid fantasy. Treated by antipsychotics especially HaldolSchizotypal Personality Disorder
Disregard for others. Violation of other’s rights. Lack of Remorse. Underlying tension and rage. Lack of empathy. Poor impulse control. Poor attention. Sensation seeking. Low response to threat of pain. Difficulty stopping in face of failure. About 50% genetic and 50% environmental. 3% of men and 1% of women. Defense mechanism is Treated byAntisocial Personality Disorder
Crisis addict. Mood swings. Impulsive behavior. Self destructive. Identity diffusion. May at times lose contact with reality. Complains of loneliness. Predominantly female. Similar to Antisocial Personality Disorder. Countertransference is a problem. Defense mechanism is splitting. Treated by antipsychotics for anger, rage and psychotic episodes and antidepressants esp. MAOI and fluoxetine (Prozac)Borderline Personality Disorder
Emotionality. Attention seeking. Superficial. Need for Reassurance. Defense mechanism is reaction formation and suppression. Treated byHistrionic Personality Disorder
Sense of self importance. Feel entitled. Ambitious. Exploitive. Fragile self esteem. Defense mechanism is . Treated by Narcissistic Personality Disorder
Shy. Socially withdrawn. “Introverted”. “Inferiority Complex”. Timid. Defense mechanism is . Treated byAvoidant Personality Disorder
Submissive. Dependent. Indecisive. Possibly “learned helplessness”. Followers-not leaders. Defense mechanism is . Treated by insight oriented therapy and assertiveness trainingDependent Personality Disorder
Rigid & formal. Lack spontaneity. Anxious if not in control. Like rules and regulations. Dislike Change. Defense mechanism is doing and undoing. Treated by Nondirective Therapy and Group Therapy and with medications Clonazepam (Klonopin) and benzodiazepinesObsessive-Compulsive PD
Person that has some personality disorder traits from a certain disorder and some personality disorder traits from another disorder but not enough of each disorder's trait to be diagnosed with that disorderMixed Personality Disorder NED (Not Elsewhere Defined)

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