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Basic terms and definitions; Define Part 1

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leanorormosa's version from 2017-06-21 20:11

types of computers

Question Answer
ComputerElectronic information processing machine.
Dumb terminalA monitor mouse or keyboard connected to a mainframe/miniframe that works directly on the mainframe/miniframe. (diagram)
Intelligent terminalA normal microcomputer connected to a mainframe/miniframe that is able to work on its own when needed. (diagram)
Special purpose computerDesigned to do few specific jobs.
General purpose computerDesigned to solve a wide variety of jobs.
SupercomputerLarge, multi-processor used for carrying out complex processes involving calculations at a very fast rate.
MainframeLarge, multi processor and multi-user general purpose computer. Used extensively for bulk data and processing.
MiniframeMiniaturized mainframe, multi-user and multi-processor. U sed for data processing and storage.
MicrocomputerSingle user, single-processor computer used as a standalone or as a workstation/terminal.
Microcontroller/EmbeddedComputers installed in electronic devices, domestic appliances etc. programmed to carry out a specific task.
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Data and information

Question Answer
DataInformation in raw state.
InformationData that is interpreted, processed and given structure.
Discrete/DigitalData consists of sets of distinct possible values.
Analogue/ContinuousMade up of continuously changing quantities.
HybridA combined digital and analogue computer.
ModemA device needed to change digital to analogue data and vice versa. (diagram)
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Software (diagram)

Question Answer
SoftwareAll the various programs
System softwareThe programs that run control and maintain the computer system.
Operating systemA set of system programs running together to make the hardware work. ex. IOS, Android, Windows, Mac, Unix, Linux, Dos.
UtilitiesAdd-ons that help the OS operate better. ex. Antivirus, Firewall Disc cleaner, DVD / CD burner, Compression software.
Application softwareThe programs that are created to help the user do some specific tasks on the computer
Off the shelfA program which is available on the market for everyone to buy. ex. Word processor, spread sheets, databases, Browser, Media player.
Tailor madeA program specifically built for the user's needs. ex. Clinic system, Stock control System, Rental system.
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Hardware

Question Answer
HardwareAll physical elements in a computer system.
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Basic functions of a computer system

Question Answer
Input devicesA unit that accepts data from the outside world and converts it into a form understood by the computer.
Output devicesA unit that delivers to the outside world.
Backing/ Secondary storage devicesA unit where data and programs can be stored.
Communication devicesA unit that connects the computer to any type of communication network.
Processing dataA unit that operates on the data by obeying a program of instructions
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Input devices

Question Answer
Input devicesA unit that accepts data from the outside world and converts it into a form understood by the computer. (diagram)
Input ActionThe action of entering (feeding) data to a computer. (diagram)
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output devices

Question Answer
Output devicesA unit that delivers to the outside world. (diagram)
Output actionthe action of getting information out of a computer mainly in the form of soft copy. (diagram)
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Backing/secondary storage devices

Question Answer
Backing/ Secondary storage devicesA unit where data and programs can be stored. (diagram)
StoreThe action of making a permanent/temporary copy of information which a computer can use again. (diagram)
Retrieve loadThe action of reading the information back from a storage device. (diagram)
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Communication devices

Question Answer
Communication devicesA unit that connects the computer to any type of communication network. (diagram)
Recievethe action of accepting informatinon sent from another computer. (diagram)
Sendthe action of transferring the information to other computers via a data connection network. (diagram)
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Processing

Question Answer
Processing dataA unit that operates on the data by obeying a program of instructions (diagram)
Processingworking with data ( sorting, comparing, calculating, combining, and rearranging of information). (diagram)
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The Central Processing Unit and the input/output subsystem (diagram)

Question Answer
Which are the two main components of the CPU?The ALU and the CU
I/O subsystemThe unit that controls the way that all the the components making up a computer system communicate and transfer data amongst each other.
CUTHe part that leads the operations of the CPU. It tells the computer's memory, ALU and peripherals how to respond to a program's instructions.
ALUThe place where mathematical and logical comparisons are worked out.
MemoryRAM, ROM and Cache
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Memory

Question Answer
Ramread and write type of memory and is volatile.
ROMis read only type and is permanent.
Cache like the Ram but much smaller.
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Storage and space

Question Answer
Bitthe smallest unit of data a computer can recognise.
Byteconsists of 8 bits
How many bytes are there between kilo and giga?1024 * 1024
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Speed

Question Answer
What is the unit for speed?Hertz
what can you deduct from a CPU rated 1 GHz?It is able to do 1,000,000,000 tasks per second.
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Acronyms

Question Answer
CPUcontrol processing unit
ALUarithmetic logic unit
CUcontrol unit
RAMrandom access memory
ROMread only memory
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