Basic Ideas of Classical Conditioning

tuvilaxo's version from 2017-10-16 17:52


Question Answer
LearningThe acquisition of new knowledge, skills, or responses from experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner.
Ivan PavlovBehaviorist; Work with salivation of dogs; Founded idea of Classical Conditioning
Classical ConditioningWhen a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response.
What are the four basic elements of Classical Conditioning?Unconditioned Stimulus (US), Unconditioned Response (UR); Conditioned Stimulus (CS); Conditioned Response (CR)
USsomething that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism
URa reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an US.
CSa stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism.
CRa reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a CS.


Question Answer
What are the Four (General) Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning?The CS must come before the US; the CS & US must come very close together in time; the CS is usually a stimulus that stands out from other competing stimulus; neutral stimulus must be paired with US several times before conditioning can take place
What are the Five (Official*) Basic Principles of Classical Conditioning?Acquisition, Second-Order Conditioning, Extinction, Spontaneous Recovery, and Generalization & Discrimination
AcquisitionThe phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together.
Second-Order ConditioningConditioning where the stimulus that functions as the US is actually the CS from an earlier procedure in which it acquired its ability to produce learning; ex) Black square paired with now reliable bell tone. After training, dogs salivate to black square even though never directly associated with food.
ExtinctionRepeatedly presenting CS (food) w/out US (food): behavior declines until it ceases
Spontaneous RecoveryThe tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period; Point: Extinction does not completely wipe out learning of CS.
GeneralizationThe CR is observed even though the CS is slightly different from the original one used during acquisition
DiscriminationThe capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli.
Little AlbertUsed a 9-month-old that showed very little emotion to prove that Classical Conditioning could produce emotion, namely, fear. Additionally, confirmed conditioning could be applied to humans as well as other animals