Basal Ganglia

imissyou419's version from 2016-10-17 02:10

Section 1

Question Answer
What are the functions of basal ganglia?motor: initiate, coordinate speed & strength of movement, keeps motor cortex at right level of excitability in order to initiate movements with proper strength of contraction; cognition; learning; emotions
striatumcaduate nucleus + putamen
lentiform nucleusputamen + globus pallidus
corpus striatumcaudate nucleus + putamen + globus pallidus
anatomically, basal ganglia includes:corpus striatum, claustrum, amygdala
clinically, basal ganglia includes:corpus striatum, subthalamic nuclei, substantia nigra
nucleus accumbensunique part of basal striatum (pleasure, addiction)
which brain structures are subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra corpus striatum from?corpus striatum (telencephalon), subthalamic nuclei (diencephalon), substantia nigra (mesencephalon)
what is the anterior and posterior part of corpus callosum?genu (anterior), splenium (posterior); can be seen in horizontal sections

Section 2

Question Answer
direct striopallidal pathwaycerebral cortex -> striatum -> internal pallidus -> thalamus (ventral anterior) -> excite cerebral cortex
indirect striopallidal pathwaycerebral cortex -> striatum -> external pallidum -> subthalamic nuclei -> internal pallidum -> thalamus (ventral anterior) -> inhibit cerebral cortex
substantia nigra functionrelease dopamine, doapmine modulate both direct and indirect striopallidal pathways
Parkinson's loss of dopamine neurons in substantia nigra, symptoms: slow tremor small, slow, jerky movements, muscle rigidity, bradykinesia (poverty of movement), treatment: L-dopa, lesion of ventral anterior region of thalamus
Huntington'satrophy of striatum particularly loss of inhibitory neurons leading to overstimulation of motor cortex, symptoms: choreiform movements (brisk, jerky, purposeless movements)
Schizophreniatoo much dopamine in nucleus accumbens that has connections to lateral prefrontal cortex, symptoms: delusions, hallucinations, disordered thoughts, deficient of normal emotional responses, treatment: dopamine inhibitor but get motor deficient

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