Bacti Midterm

abryant's version from 2017-02-24 22:03

Section 1

Question Answer
What is Aspergillus normally caused byA. fumigatus
Where is A. fumigatus foundEnvironment
Diseases caused by aspergillosisBrooder pneumonia (chicks), Mycotic abortion (cows), glutteral pouch mycosis (horses), keratomycosis (horses), nasal aspergillosis (dogs)
What do you stain A. fumigatus withLactophenol cotton blue
Which agar for A. fumigatusSabourad
Enzymes released by A. fumigatus and effect on bodyElastases and proteases - destroy structural barriers of lung (brooder pneumonia), turbinate bones (nasal aspergillosis)
Distinctive feature of mycotic abortionRaised cutaneous plaques (resemble ring worm lesions)
How does mycotic abortion happenAspergillus spores enter blood, invade placenta, impair circulation and cause fetal death
Diagnosis of aspergillosisKOH, wet mounts of deep scrapings, tissue sample (septae hyphae) or lung sample (conidial heads), radiograph, rhioscopy, culture on SAB, serological test for dogs (AGID)
What is AGID and what is it used for Agar Gel Immuno-Diffusion Assay - serological test for aspergillosis in dogs
Control of aspergillosisLitter change (bids); avoid bad hay/silage (cows)
Treatment of system aspergillosis in horsesKetoconazole (local) and Itraconazole (systemic)
Treatment of aspergillosis for keratitis in horsesNatamycin or Miconazole
Treatment of nasal aspergillosis in dogsClotrimazole nasal infusion

Section 2

Question Answer
Diseases caused by Candida spp.Mycotic stomatitis (dogs, cats); Enteritis (young animals); Crop mycosis (thrush - poultry); Metritis/Vaginitis (horses)
Agar for Candida albicansSabouraud
Most commons Candida spp.Candida albicans
Can you gram stain Candida?Yes
Pathogenesis of candidaAdheres to mm; pseudohyphae invade epithelium, produce destructive enzymes that cause ulcerative inflammation
Enzymes produced by candidaPhospholipases, proteases
Diagnosis of candidaKOH, Latex aggln, culture
Treatment of candidaNystatin (topica); Ketoconazole (oral)

Section 3

Question Answer
Cryptococcus habitatSoil, pigeon droppings (main source of infection)
Which species is cryptococcus most common in Cats - a sporadic disease
How is cryptococcus transmittedInhalation
Distinctive morphological feature of cryptococcusAntiphagocytic capsule
Clinical signs of cryptococcusSneezing, snuffling, mucopurulent/hemorrhagic nasal discharge
Diagnosis of cryptococcusWet mounts, culture, aggln test
Treatment of cryptococcus Itraconazole, Fluconazole (both are better than Ketoconazole)
How long does it sometimes take to treat cryptococcus?> 6 months (usually 2 months)
Pathogenesis of cryptococcusEnzymes disrupt host cell membranes, cause granulomas
What can you use to clean contaminated areas of skin from cryptococcusCalcium hydroxide; sodium hydroxide

Section 4

Question Answer
Shape of Malassezia pachydermatitisBottle/peanut/footprint shaped yeast
Conditions causes by MalasseziaOtitis externa (dogs); Chronic dermatitis (lichenification, pruritis, alopecia)
Predisposing factors to MalasseziaFlea allergy, genetics
Dx malasseziaGram stain, wet mounts, culture on SAB (fungus) and BA (bacteria)
Treatment of malasseziaNystatin or Clotrimazole (topical. Ketoconzaole (oral) for dermatitis -- best