Bacti Final

isabellepjk's version from 2017-05-10 10:19

1. Enterobacteria

Question Answer
E. ColiNot all are pathogenic
Entero=d+, Endo=Mastitis and death, Shiga= hamburger dz
Not susceptible to pen or tetra- use genta
UTI/pyo in dogs and cats, Septicemia in young, shigellosis in horses
Vx for moms, fluids with lytes as the FIRST thing you do
Metritis does not cause abortion, can treat with amikycin/genta
Mastitis d/t wood shavings
D+ in birds, not really other animals - can be treated with enroflox
UTI/OE in dogs
mucoid colonies on BA
SalmonellaSlide/agglutination for figuring out which strain
No good vax/abx (no tetra or pen), IV antiserum for horses
Typhim-Humans, horses, and chickens
Mostly food animals, but dogs and cats can get it
Cannot eliminate the carrier state
ProteusSwarming on BA, non swarming, and colorless on MAC
OE/UTI in dogs , No abortion/septicemia
usually a contaminant
YersiniaPestis= cat plague , usually for outdoor cats
IMMEDIATE tx with tetra/doxy
No vaccines
Enlarged LNs in humans in cats
Enterolit Pigs are carries, dogs get diarrha
Not usually found in food animals
Loves the cold
Shigella Not in food animals/horses , Like YERSINA
Shiga toxin in horses is NOT from shigella
Dogs can excrete but don't have clinical dz
Only in monkeys and humans

2. Pseudo to Helico

Question Answer
PseudomonasSaprophytic, multiples in water and sewage, some present in intestine and mucosa
Opportunistic d/t abx overuse
Wound infections in all species
Sheep=fleece rot
Horse=ulcerative keratitis
NO abortions
vx for mink
genta, amik, polymyx, ceftazidime usually good;
no clavamox or cephalothin
test with mallein intrapalpebral; positive-pus and swelling
US euthanize
Farcy in cutaneous
Actinobacillus lignieresii Commensal in oral cavity of cows
"Wooden tongue"

Normally abx are okay in early stages
Tx with tetra or TMS
Actinobacillus equuli Sleepy foal
Septicemia can result in death
Ceftiofur IV or genta with pen
colostrum to newborns
Not zoonotic
Actinobacillus suiscommensal of adults but babies get it through umbilicus
petichial hemorrhages
Tx with ampicillin or TMS
autogenous vx may help
Bacterin Vx
General Pasteurella, mannheimia, haemophilis and bordetellaG- rods
Resp dz
septicemia in animals and birds
Pasteurella multocidaHemorrhagic septicemia mainly in the tropics ; affects cattle, buffalo, deer, and elephants; Not in the US
SNUFFLES ; nasal dc with cjx and may lead to death; tx with chloramphenicol, tetra, or enroflox
Tx for other species=TMS
Wound infections in dogs and cats with bites/scratches
atrophic rhinitis in pigs with Bordetella
Fowl Cholera
Virulence factors: Capsule, endotoxin, exotoxin (type d strains)
Vx for cow rep infection are only partially effective
Bacterin for pigs-vx moms and piglets at 5-8 weeks
Mannheima haemolyticaSHIPPING FEVER
present in mucosa of healthy cattle, made dz by stress/transport
Virulence factors: Capsule, endotoxin, leukotoxin
Goat and Sheep Dz penumonia, septicemia, mastitis (BLUE BAG) fatal d/t endotoxemia
Vx for cattle cannot be used with Abs
No vx for sheep and goats
Ceftioflur and florfenicol can be used Florfenicol is better
FrancisellaTULAREMIA/rabbit fever/deer-fly fever
endemic in wildlife in NA
Vx for humans at high risk, otherwise none
Cats (most common), sheep, and dogs can get it
Tx with tetras and fluoroquinolones
small abscesses throughout the lung
Haemophilus group generalgram - coccobacilli/pleomorphic
Need enriched media
Strict parasites/resp/genital/CNS
Actinobacillus pleurpneumoniaeContagious pleuropneumonia of swine
Death in dz free herds in 24h
pregs will get septicemia and kill the babies and the babies will die from septicemia if they are born
virulence factors capsule, endotoxin, cytotoxins
Abs protect against homologous types, colostrum for piglets
Tx with Tiamulin reduces mortality but carriers remain
Bacterin vx reduces mortality
Needs V factor on plate
NOT saprophyte
Haemophilus ParasuisGLASSERS DZ
normal in the naropharynx
Pyrexia, lameness, recumbency, convulsions
Bacterins help control
Histophilus somniITEME in cattle, and pretty much only cattle (infectious thrombo-embolic meningo-encephalitis)
knuckling of fetlock, circling, somnolence, blindness, death, brain lesions,
resp dz, myocarditis, endometritis and abortion
tx with oxytetra or other Abx , vax reduce morbidity and mortality
Males can carry and be treated
Taylorella equigenitalisagent of CEM
Euthanisia in japan, not USA and canada
no dz in Canada
copious vaginal discharge
Tx: chlorhex uterine irrigation, ampicillin, ceftoxamine and gentamicin
chlorhex wash and cream for stallions
No vax
not fatal but can cause infertility
Bordetellapertussis=whopping cough in children; bronchiseptica=animals
Tracheobronchitis/KENNEL COUGH
CAN cause infection in cats and come from dogs
Abx: TMS, tetra, enroflox
vx: Live, IN, annuals needed for full protection
Atropic rhinitis with pasteurella multocida
Avium turkey coryza: Tx with tetra, vx are available
Moraxella bovisIBKC/PINK EYE (infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis)
can go blind
virulence factors pili, haemolysin, dermonecrotoxin, collagenase
Pili vx for preg cows
colostral Abs for bbys
tx: penicillin and oxytetra, long acting tetracyclin
Brucella overview/generalZOONOTIC
Genital tract parasites that multiply intracellularly
chronic infection
abortus cattle and rarely in horses (horses=fistulous withers)
suis pigs
melitensis goat, sheep and SERIOUS in humans Not prevalent in USA and Canada
Canis dogs, asymptomic in dogs
infertility, abortion in late gestation, Enlarged LNs, abnormal sperm, discospondylitis
Dx: stomach content, lung, placental contents, milk, semen
Ab test for dogs
NO VX IN USA Can't vx cattle, no vx for dogs either
Live vx can cause human infection
Don't treat food animals Tx: with doxy and streptomycin for a month
humans can get infection via RB51 vx
CampyJejuni; spiral appearance, microaerophilic, thermophilil; intestinal tracts of chickens, other birds and pigs (but generally harmless in these); enteritis in dogs, calves, hamsters, guineas, and humans; abortion in sheep and cattle; gram smear; Tx: erythro, tetra, enroflox-TMS has no effect; grows on Preston
Fetus spiral; also microaerophilic; grows on BA with abx; VX VERY EFFECTIVE
Coli less virulent than jejuni
LawsoniaCampy-like, PIA/GARDEN HOSE GUT, proliferative enteropathy, cx ileitis
signs are subclinical, not culturable, Tx: Tylosin/Tiamulin in feed
vx in herds with problems
ulcers in humans, gastritis in cats, asymptomatic usually but signs are v+ and weight loss
Dx: biopsy with urease test
tx: Metro, amox, calrithromycin, tetra, bismuth

3. Spiro to Anaerobes

Question Answer
Spirochetes generalstain poorly with grams
Dark field microscopy
Leptospira ZOONOTIC
many different species; biflexa which is not pathogenic;
Clinical signs in pigs: fever, anemia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, infertility, ABORTION (Main serovars are hardjo for bovine, pomona for porcine and icterohem for bovine)
Dogs signs: fever, weird peeing, icterus
uncommon in horses, BRATISLAVA can affect horses
flu like in humans
Vx can be used
Tx Peni, strepto, tetra/doxy
TreponemaSyphyllius in rabbits and humans
tx with pen g
anaerobic but O2 tolerant
has a hemolysin and cytotoxin
NOT zoonotic
Fecal observ or special BA for dx
Tylosin in feed for prevention
fever, polyarthritis
Serology/direct examination of body fluids
Tx: doxy/tetra
prev - vx, new ones are better; won't work if infection is already there

4. Non Spore forming anaerobes

Question Answer
GeneralMost infections from normal flora; bite wounds commonly infected, kill by air exposure (duh), Pens, metro, and clinda are effective
Gram - RodsFusobacterium
Gram positive Rod and what is causesEuchbacterium suis
porcine cystitis and pyelonephritis
G+ coccus and what is causesPeptostreptococcus
suppurative conditions
G- coccus and what it causes Veillonella
Found in mixed infections
Fusbacterium necrophorumCALF DIPTHERIA
RUMENITIS LIVER ABSCESS (with arcanobacterium/truperella pyrogens)
FOOT ROT (with dichelobacter nodsus)
tylosin in feed can help reduce liver abscesses; Tx: Pen and strepomycin injection; Vx available

5 Mycoplasma, Rickettsia, and Chlamydia

Question Answer
Mycoplasma GeneralGrow on soft agar with 20% serum; center of the colony digs into the agar; Dx: Serological tests, FA stain, etc; primarily affects resp system, joints, mamms, UGS ; Tx: Tetra, tylosin, erythro, tiamulin, lincomycin, spectinomycin enroflox; Vx: Don't eradicate, but are available; Mastitis tx not effective
Bovine MycoGenital tract: aberrant estrus, vaginitis
Use minocycline or IU tetra; arthritis, penumonia, Mastitis, CBPP
Bovine CBPPmycoplasma
latex aggln, ELISA, Pleural fluid test
slaughter dz animals
tx leads to carrier state which is not recomd
vx available but only in edemic areas
Mycoplasma in goats and sheepmastitis with reduced milk
tx: tetra may be useful
CCPPFever, violent cough, extended neck, death
no thickening of interlobar tissues unlike CBPP
Dx: Submit fluid, a part of the lung, use PCR
Slaughter; vx are possible
Tx: Tetra, tylosin, tiamulin
Mastitis, arthritis, keratitis, pneumonia, septicemia, a bunch of mycoplasmas involved
Tetra is useful
mastitis cannot be treated effectively
Myco Ovisfever, anemia, soft spleen
Tx: tetracyclines
Myco hyopneumoniaeSWINE
Tylosin, tiamulin, linco for Tx
symp coughing and poor growth
Myco gallPOULTRY
CRD with nasal dc, coughing, sneezing
tx: tetra in feed, tylosin in water and in eggs
Vx are available
Myco meleagridisturkeys
reduced hatching
NO vax
tiamulin in water for ten days
Myco SynoviaPOULTRY
synovitis, arthritis, resp signs, rales,
aerosol transmission
Tetra in feed
Feline MycosFelis conjunctivitis
gatae arthritis
HAEMOFELIS feline infectious anemia
tx: Tetra, blood transfusion, fluroqs
Myco summary slideMostly arthritis, pneumonia (mastitis)
Bovine=CBPP-exotic-M. mycoides
Swine. M.hypoenumoniae pneumonia
Poultry=M. gall-CRD and IS
Cats-M. felis-conjunctivitis; M. haemofelis Feline infectious anemia
General ChlamydiaLPS, gram stain sucks, inapparent, persistent infection
C. psittaci
C. Felis
C. abortus
C. pecorum
C. penumonia
Psittaci: Birds, pneumonia and air sacculitis (acid fast stain) NO vx, but TETRAs are effective, D+; Humans psittacosis (resp)
felis cats: ZOONOTIC, conjunctivitis and rhinitis, Tx with tetra, vx reduce severity
abortus ruminants and pigs-abortion
pecorum cattle-sporadic encephalo
Pneumonia humans, koalas, and horses-mild resp infection
Bartonella henselaeCAT SCRATCH FEVER