omranalzobaidi's version from 2015-12-10 11:39


from jingalingaling

Culture requirements

H. influenzaeChocolate agar with factors V (NAD+) and X (hematin) blood loving
N. gonorrhaeaeThayer-Martin (VPN) media - Vancomycin, Polymyxin, and Nystatin
B. pertussisBordet-Gengou (potato) agar
C. diptheriaeTellurite plate, Loffler's media
M. tuberculosisLowenstein-Jenson agar
M. pneumoniaeEaton's agar
Lactose-fermenting entericsMacConkey's agar (pink colonies b/c fermentation produces acid that turns plate pink)
E. coliEMB (eosin-methylene blue) agar as blue-black colonies with metallic sheen
LegionellaCharcoal yeast extract agar buffered with cysteine
FungiSabouraud's agar


Question Answer
GiemsaBorrelia, Plasmodium, trypanosomes, Chlamydia
PASStains glycogen, mucopolysaccarides; diagnoise Whipple's disease (Tropheryma whippelii) Mycolic acid
Ziehl-NeelsenAcid-fast organisms
India inkCyptococcus neoformans (also can use mucicarmine) Latex agglutination is the best test
Silver stainFungi (Pneumocystis), Legionella
Wright StainBorrelia. Also geimsa works.

Virulence factors

Protein AS. aureusBinds Fc of Ig. Prevents opsonization and phagocytosis
IgA proteaseSHiN -- S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B, NeisseriaCleaves IgA and allows for colonization of respiratory mucosa
M proteingroup A strepHelps prevent phagocytosis, target antigen for rheumatic fever antibodies, antigenic similarity leads to autoimmune Johnes criteria
Ability to undergo transformationSHiN -- S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae type B, Neisseria, group A Streptococcusmutations/resistance
BiofilmsStaph epidermisallows it to colonize IV catheters and Prosthetic devices


BugToxin and FunctionBad shit that happens afterwards
S. aureusSuperantigen -- TSST-1toxic shock syndrome
S. aureusSuperantigen -- enterotoxinsfood poisoning
S. aureusSuperantigen -- exfoliatinscalded skin syndrome
S. pyogenesScarlet fever-erythrogenic toxintoxic shock-like syndrome
Corynebacterium diphtheriaeA-B toxin inactivating EF2causes pharyngitis and psuedomembrane
Pseudomonas Aexotoxin A inactivates EF 2
VibriocholeraeA-B toxin causing ADP ribosylation of G protein, stimulating adenylate cyclaserice-water diarrhea (pumping out Cl, and decreasing Na absorption)
E. coli (ETEC)A- B toxin Heat-labile toxin (adenylate cyclase) aka cholera "lite"Watery diarrhea
E. coli (ETEC)A-B toxin Heat-stable toxin (guanylate cyclase)Watery diarrhea
E. coli (EHEC)Shiga toxin, cleaves host cell rRNA and enhances cytokine releaseHUS
Bordetella pertussisA-B toxin, inhibits G-alpha-i (increasing cAMP),whooping cough
Bordatella pertussisinhibits chemokine receptorlymphocytosis
Clostriudium perfringinsalpha toxin -"lecithinase" breaks down phospholipidsgas gangrene, myonecrosis (double zone of hemolysis on blood agar)
C. tetanitetanospasmin: Inhibits release of GABA and glycine release from renshaw cells in the spinal cordLockjaw
C. botulismInhibits release of AChanticholinergic sx, CNS paralysis, "floppy baby"
Bacillus anthracisEdema factor (bacterial adenylate cyclase) increase cAMPcauses eschar - painless black ulcer surrounded by edematous ring
ShigellaShiga toxin, cleaves host cell rRNA and enhances cytokine releaseHUS
S. pyogenesStreptolysin Ohemolysis
C dificilecytotoxin: kills enterocytespsuedomembranous colitis

Gram positive bacteria (Cocci)

Catalase +, coag +, B hemolytic!S. aureus
Catalase +, coag -, noboviocin sensitiveS. epidermis
Catalase +, coag -, noboviocin resistantS. saprophyticus
Catalase -, alpha hemolysis, capsule and optochin sensitive, bile solubleS. pneumo.
Catalase -, alpha hemolysis, no capsule, optochin resistant, not bile solubleViridans strep (s. mutans)
Catalase -, complete hemolysis, bacitracin sensitivegroup A strep (s. pyogenes)
Catalase -, complete hemolysis, bacitracin resistantgroup B strep (s. agalactiae)
Catalase -, no hemolysis, could also be alpha hemolyticEnterococcus and Peptostreptococcus

Gram negative bacteria

Cocci, maltose fermenterN. meningitidis
Cocci, maltose non-fermenterN. gonorrhoeae
Coccoid rodsH. influenzae, Bordetella pertusses, Pasturella, Brucella
Rods, Lactose fermenter (fast)E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter
Rods, Lactose fermenter (slow)Citrobacter, Serratia, others
Rods, Lactose non-fermenter , Oxidase negativeShigella, Salmonella, Proteus
Rods, Lactose non-fermenter, Oxidase positivePsuedomonas

Pigment producing bacteria

Question Answer
Gold/yellow pigmentstaph aureus
yellow "sulfur" granulesactinomyces
blue green pigmentpseudomonas
red pigmentserratia masrcescens

buzz words for gram negative bacteria

Buzz wordBug
red currant sputumKlebsiella
aspiration pneumo and abcesses in diabetics and alcholicsKlebsiella
lives in the gallbladderS typhi
day care, puppy fecesyersinia enterocolitis
flagellar antigenH
capsular antigenK
polysaccharide of endotoxinO antigen
only spirochete ( BIGGEST) that can be seen on light microscopyBorrelia (wright, geimsa)
question mark bacteria that cause conjunctivitisleptospira
erythema chronicum migrans, bulls eye red rashlyme disease stage 1
which animal is needed for Lyme tick reservoirmust have deer as a host to complete the life cycle. mice can act as reservoirs
Bell's palsy + AV node blockLyme disease stage 2
Chronic monoarthritis + migratory polyarthritislyme disease stage 3
infection of the skin bone and joints that heals with keloids, and leads to severe limb deformitiesYaws - Treponema pertenue (NOT and STD, but VDRL +)
broad based ataxia, + Romberg, Charcot Joints, stroke without hypertensiontertiary syphilis
Saber shins (anterior bowing), saddle nose, CN VIII deafness, hutchinson's teeth, mulberry molarscongenital syphilis
VDRL - but FTA-ABS +successfully treated syphilis. ABS stays elevated longer
bacillary angiomatosis in HIV, looks like Kaposi's sarcomaBartonella
Flea bite from a prarie dogYersinia pestis
pleomorphic, gram variable rod causing grey vaginal dischargeGardenerella vaginalis, also, Mobilincus
the only rickettsiae that is transmitted by aerosol (no arthropod vector needed), and causes pneumoniacoxiella
headache, fever and vasculitic rash starting on hands and feet, migrating to the trunkRocky mountain spotted fever
obligate intracellular aerobe that needs host CoA and NADRickettsiae
Obligate intracellular aerobe that cannot make it's own ATPChlamydia
rash starting centrally, spreading outward, no palm and sole involvement. after a flea biterickettsia typhi
Fever with no rash, no vector bite and negative weil-felix, caused by a rickettsiaeq fever, Coxiella is a rickettsia
cell wall lacks muramic acid, cytoplasmic inclusions seen on Giemsa stainChlamydia
reactive arthritis, conjunctivitis, non gonococcal urethritis leading to PID most common STDChlamydia trachomatis
Chlamydia serotype causing blindness in africa and chronic infectionA,B,C
Serotype causing urethritis/PID, neonatal pneumonia, conjunctivitis, ectopic pregnancychlamydia trachomatis serotype D-K
ulcers followed by heaped up lymph nodes = acute lymphadenitis with + frei testlymphogranuloma venereum, chlamydia L1-L3
granuloma inguinale, painless ulcer that bleeds easily on contactdonovanosis, Calymmobacterium granulomatis
only bacteria with cholesterol in the membranemycoplasma pneumoniae

bacteria : where do they reside

Question Answer
skinstaph epidermis
nosestaph aureus, staph epidermis
oropharynxviridans strep
dental plaquestrep mutans
colonbacteroides fragilis > E coli
vaginalactobacillus, colonized by E coli and group B strep

what did you eat??

Question Answer
bacillus cereusreheated rice
S aureusmeats, mayonnaise, custard preformed toxin
Clostridium perfringensreheated meat dishes improperly canned foods
C botulinumimproperly canned foods
E coli O157:h7undercooked meat
Salmonellapoultry, meat, eggs

bloody diarrhea :

Question Answer
comma or S shaped organisms growing at 42 C, oxidase +Campylobacter
lactose neg, flagellar motilitysalmonella
lactose neg, very low ID50, produces shiga toxinshigella
can cause HUSEHEC
invades colonic mucosa, E coliEIEC, also makes Shiga toxin
day care outbreaks, pseudoappendicitisYersinia
pseudomembranous colitisC diff
protozoan, RBC engulfed macrophagesentamoeba histiolytica
diarrhea, headache and rose spots on the abdomensalmonella TYPHI

watery diarrhea

Question Answer
travelers diarrhea, makes ST and LTETEC
comma shaped organism, rice water diarrheavibrio cholerae
gas gangrene causative agentC perfringens
protozoagiardia, cryptosporidium
virusesrotavirus, adenovirus, norwalk virus

common causes of pneumonia

Question Answer
babies <4 weeksGroup B strep and E coli
babies 4 weeks-18yearsviruses, atypicals, strep pneumo
adults 18-40 ymycoplasma, chlamydia, strep pneumo
adults 45-60 ystrep pneumo, H flu, Anaerobes, viruses,
ElderlyStrep pneumo, viruses, anaerobes, H flu, gram neg rods
Nosocomialstaph, enteric gram neg rods
immunocompromisedstaph, gram neg rods, Pneumocystis jirovecii if HIV
Alcohol or IVDAStrep pneumo, klebsiella, staphylococcus
postviralstaph, H flu

common causes of meningitis:

Question Answer
0-6 monthsgroup B strep, E coli, listeria
6 mo -6 yrsstrep pneumo, n menin, H flu B, enterovirus
6-60 yearsN meningitides, enterovirus, strep pneumo, HSV
60 +strep pneumo, gram neg, listeria


Question Answer
random personstaph aureus, guess this if you dont know
sexually activen gonorrhea - but usually a septic arthritis
diabetic and drug addictspsuedomonas
sickle cellsalmonella
prosthetic valveS aureus and staph epidermis
vertebralmycobacterium TB (Pott's disease)
cats, dog bites, scratchespasteurella
most common group that gets osteokids



Question Answer
red pigment, nosocomial, drug resistantserratia
2nd after E coli, sexually active womenstaph saprophyticus
metallic sheen on EMB agarE coli
mucoid capsuleKlebsiella
swarming of agar, urease producing, struvite stonesProteus
blue green pigment, fruity odor, nosocomialpseudomonas



Toxochorioretinits, calcifications, hydrocephalusasymptomatic, maybe some lymphadenopathycat feces, undercooked meat
Rubelladeafness, PDA, cataracts, blueberry muffin rashrash, lymphadenopathy, arthritisrespiratory
CMVhearing loss and seizuresasymptomatic, maybe monosexual contact, organ transplant
HIVrecurrent infections, diarrheadepends on CD4 countsexual or organ transplant
Herpesencephalitis, vesicular lesionsasymptomatic, some herpetic lesionsskin or mucus
syphilismulberry teeth, saddle nose, short maxilla, saber shin. usually hydrops fetalis = stillbirthchancre, disseminated rash, cardiac or neuro diseasesexual
Strep B, E coli, listerianeonatal meningitisvariedvaried

Red rashes of childhood

rash begins at the head and moves downward, postauricular lymphadenopathygerman measlesrubella
cough, coryza, head cold, red/blue spots on the buccal mucosa, followed by rash starting at head and moving downmeasles/ rubeolameasles virus
NO RASH presents with orchitis, oophoritis, meningitismumpsmumps virus
rash begins on the trunk and spreads to extremities, lesions of different agechickenpoxVZV
macular rash appearing several days after a high fever, affects infantsroseolaHerpes-6
slapped cheek pattern, appears on face and then on the body, reticular, lace likeerythema infectiosumparvovirus B19
sandpaper like rash with fever and sore throatscarlet feverstrep pyogenes
vesicular rash on palms and soles, mucosal ulcershand foot and mouth diseasecoxsackie virus


Question Answer
urethritis, cervicitis, PID, prostatis, epididymitis, creamy purulent dischargeN gonorrhea
painless chancreprimary syphilis
fever, lymphadenopathy - non suppurative, skin rashes, condyloma latasecondary syphilis
gummas, tabes dorsalis, general weakness, aortitis, argyll robertson pupiltertiary syphilis
painful genital ulcer, simultaneous unilateral lymphadenopathy that ulcerates, serpiginous borders. shaggy base, yellow gray exudateHaemophilus ducreyi = chancroid
GROOVE SIGN painless suppurated lymph nodes, develop slowly. ulcer disappears before nodes enlarge + frei testchlamydia trachomatis
painless progressive ulcerations, which bleed easily on contactdonovanosis klebsiella granulomatis
rectal strictureschlamydia trachomatis L1-L3
chlamydia conjunctivitisD-K
vaginitis, strawberry colored mucosa corkscrew motility on wet preptrich
non inflammatory, mal-odorous discharge, + whiff test, clue cellsgardnerella
chandelier testcervical motion tenderness, sign of PID
liver capsule infection, "violin string adhesions" to the parietal peritoneumfitz-hugh-curtis syndrome


Things to look up:
catalase + microbes