Bactericidal and Bacteriostatic

jasmine's version from 2016-04-26 14:48

Section 1

Question Answer
BactericidalKill bacteria directly
BacteriostaticStop bacteria from growing/spreading
MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) The minimum concentration of antibiotic to inhibit the growth of an organism
AUC (area under the curve) The total exposure of an antibiotic to an organism
Peak (concentration-dependent): MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) As the concentration of an antibiotic increases, its rate of killing increases. Prototypical antibiotic: aminoglycosides
AUC (area under the curve): MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration)A combination of both T>MIC and Peak: MIC. The rate of bacterial killing is both related to the amount of time above the MIC and the total exposure of antibiotic to the organism. Prototypical antibiotic: fluoroquinolones
T (time-dependent) >MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) Once the concentration of an antibiotic is above the MIC (typically 3-5 times greater than the MIC), there is not an increased rate of killing with increasing concentrations of antibiotic. Prototypical antibiotics: B-lactams, clindamycin, linezolid, macrolides

Section 2

Question Answer
PenicillinBlocks cell wall synthesis
CephalosporinBlocks cell wall synthesis
VancomycinBlocks cell wall synthesis
Bacitracin Blocks cell wall synthesis
TetracyclineBlocks protein synthesis
MacrolidesBlocks protein synthesis
AminoglycosidesBlocks protein synthesis
SulfonamidesBlocks folate metabolism
Trimethoprim-SulfamethoxazoleBlocks folate metabolism
MetronidazoleDisrupts DNA and protein synthesis in susceptible organisms
RifaximinAlter nucleic acid metabolism
Finasteride Inhibitor of Type II 5α-reductase, an intracellular enzyme that converts the androgen testosterone into dihydrotestosterone (DHT)
Terazosin Binds to post-synaptic alpha-1 receptors to produce arteriole and venous vasodilation
Risks of antibiotics Can change the body's normal microbial content by attacking indiscriminately both the pathological and naturally occurring, beneficial or harmless bacteria found in the intestines, lungs, and bladder; The destruction of the body's normal bacterial flora provides an opportunity for drug-resistant microorganisms to grow vigorously, and can lead to a secondary infection such as C. diff or Candidiasis (thrush) in females; This side-effect is more likely with the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics
Narrow-spectrum antibioticActs against a selected group of bacterial types that it affects
Broad-spectrum antibiotic Acts against a wide range of disease-causing bacteria; Acts against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, hence a wider number of bacterial types, and used to treat a variety of infectious diseases; For example: Meningitis: A person can get so ill that he/she could die within hours if broad-spectrum antibiotics are not initiated; For drug resistant bacteria; In super-infections where there are multiple types of bacteria causing illness, warranting either broad-spectrum or combination antibiotic therapy

Section 3

Question Answer
PenicillinStrepto, Staph, Gonorrhea, syphilis
CephalosporinUTI, skin, respiratory, bone
VancomycinC. diff, MRSA
TetracyclineChlamydia, syphilis, gonorrhea
Macrolides STI's, skin, respiratory, soft tissue
AminoglycosidesE. coli, serious infections; Can be used in combo with vancomycin
Metronidazole Vagina, stomach, skin, joint, respiratory; Will NOT treat yeast infections
Rifaximin Traveler's diarrhea
Bacitracin Minor skin infections caused by small cuts, scrapes, or burns NOT puncture wounds nor animal bites
Estrogen Control of spread of advance metastatic breast or prostate cancer and prevention of osteoporosis; Resolution of menopausal vasomotor symptoms; decreased vaginal and vulvar itching, inflammation, or dryness associated with menopause; Normalization of hormone levels
Plan B Prevention of pregnancy (estrogen and progesterone)
Mifepristone Termination of pregnancy of less than 7 weeks
Methotrexate Ectopic pregnancy; Improvement of hematopoietic values in leukemia; death of rapidly replicating malignant cells
Clomiphene Fertility drug; blocks receptors of estrogen to trigger estrogen
Progesterone Successful outcome in assisted reproduction; Control of uterine bleeding; development of normal cyclic menses
Sildenafil Male erection; Pulmonary: Increase exercise tolerance
Finasteride Decrease in urinary symptoms of benign prostatic hyperplasia; hair growth
Terazosin Decrease symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia; decrease in BP