laracrystalo's version from 2015-06-02 20:14


Question Answer
gram + coccistaph, strep
gram - coccimoraxella catarrhalis, neisseria
gram + rodsBacillus, Clostridium, Corynebacterium, Gardnerella, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Mycobacterium, Propionibacterium
gram - rodsenterics, respiratory, zoonotic
branching filamentous nocardia (weakly acid fast), actinomyces
pleomorphicchlamydiae, rickettsiae
spiralspirochetes: borrelia, leptispira, treponema
no cell wallmycoplasma, ureaplasma
comma shaped g -campylobacter jejuni, Vibrio cholera, H. pylori
g - diplococcineisseria
g - coccoid rodsH. flu, pasteurella, brucella, bordatella pertussis, francisella tularensis, rickettsia sp.
lancet shaped g+ diplococcistrep pneumo
g + rods in chainsbacillus anthracis
club shaped g +corynebacterium diphtheriae


Question Answer
do not gram stain wellTreponema (too thin), Mycobacteria (high lipid content), Legionella (intracellular), Rickettsia (intracellular), Chlamydia (intracellular, no peptidoglycan),
giemsa stainChlamydia, Borrelia, Rickettsia, Trypanosomes, Plasmodium
PASTropheryma while (whipples disease)
Ziehl-Neelson carbol fuchsin stianacid fast bacteria (nocardia, mycobacteria), protozoa (cryptosporidium oocytes)
india inkcryptococcus neoformans
silver stainfungi (pneumocystis), legionella, H. pylori
weak acid fastnocardia
gram stains bipolar/safety pin shapeYersinia enterocolitica

special culture requirements

Question Answer
chocolate agarH. flu (factor V NAD+ and X hematin)
thayer-martin agarNeisseria. Also known as VPN agar (vancomycin, polymyxin, nystatin)
VPN agarNeisseria (vancomycin, polymyxin, nystatin) also known as thayer-martin agar
bordet-gengou agarB. pertussis (potato)
regan-lowe mediumB. pertussis (charcoal, blood, antibiotic)
tellurite agar, loffler mediumC. diphtheriae
eaton agarM. pneumoniae (needs cholesterol)
EMB agar (eosin-methylene blue)e. coli (makes it turn green metallic sheen)
charcoal yeast extractlegionella (plus agar buffered with cysteine and iron)
MacConkey agarlactose fermenting enterics (fermentation produces acid, causing colonies to turn pink)
sabouraud agarfungi
can grow on egg yolk agarC. perfringens (look for white precipitate due to lecithinase on egg yolk lipids)
black on hektoen agarsalmonella spp.
green on hektoen agarshigella
grows on alkaline mediacholera
5% sheep's blood agarpasteurella multocida
safety pin stainingyersinia, pasteurella
lowenstein-jensen mediamycobacterium TB

tests of differentiation

Question Answer
urease +Cryptococcus, H. pylori, Proteus, Ureaplasma, Nocardia, Klebsiella, S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus
catalase +degrade H2O2 into H2O and bubbles of O2. Nocardia, Pseudomonas, Listeria, Aspergillus, Candida, E. coli, Staphylococci, Serratia
coagulase -S. epidermidis, S. saprophyticus
novobiocin sensitiveS. epidermis
novobiocin resistantS. saprophyticus
alpha hemolyticform green ring around colonies on blood agar. Strep pneumo, Strep viridans, E. coli
beta hemolyticclear area of hemolysis on blood agar. Staph aureus, Strep pyogenes, Strep agalactiae (GBS), Listeria
gamma hemolyticno hemolysis. staph epidermidis. enterococci, E. faecalis and S. bovis)
variable hemolysisenterococcus
optochin sensitivestrep pneumo
optochin resistantstrep viridans
bacitracin sensitiveGroup A strep
bacitracin resistantGroup B strep
lactose fermentingCitrobacter, Klebsiella, E. coli, Enterobacter, Serratia
maltose fermentingN. meningitidis
maltose nonfermenterN. gonorhoeae
sorbitol nonfermenterEHEC (distinguishes it from the other E. coli which all ferment sorbitol)
sorbitol fermenterE. coli (except EHEC)
huppurate +hydrolizes Na+ hippurate. GBS (agalactiae)
CAMP test +GBS (agalactieae) when GBS is plated with staph aureus, there is a larger zone of hemolysis
bile solublestrep pneumo
bile resistantstrep viridans, enterococci
can grow in 6.5% NaClenterococcus (faceless and faecium)
poly D glutamate (glutamic acid) protein (peptide) capsulebacillus anthracis
double zone of hemolysis on blood agarclostridium perfringens
elek + testcorynebacterium diphtheriae (tests for toxin)
acid labilesalmonella app. (inactivated by stomach acid), cholera
acid stabileshigella (resistant to stomach acid)
weil-feix testfor rickettsial species
FTA-Abs testafter + screening test for syphylis, do this for specificity and diagnosis
argyll-roberston pupilstertiary syphilis. accommodate but don't react.
tertiary syphilisargyll-robertson pupils, dorsal column degeneration, hutchinson teeth, mulberry molars, ascending aortic aneurysm with tree bark appearance
congenital syphilissaber tooth shins, deafness, saddle nose deformity
diagnosed with NAAT testchlamydia
PYR +GAS (pyogenes). It means pyrronidonyl arylamidase

random questions

Question Answer
aerobesnocardia, pseudomonas, mycobacterium TB
anaerobesFusobacterium, Clostridium, Bacteroides, Actinomyces (they lack catalase and or superoxide disputes and are thus susceptible to oxidative damage)
what antibiotic is ineffective against anaerobes and why?ahminoglycosides are ineffective bc need oxygen to enter into bacterial cell
obligate intracellularrickettsia, chlamydia, coxiella (rely on host ATP)
facultative intracellularsalmonella, neisseria, brucella, mycobacterium, listeria, francisela, legionella, yersinia pestis
encapsulated bacteriastreptococcus pneumoniae, H. flu tybe B, Neisseria meningitidis, E. coli, Salmonella, Klebsiella, GBS
produces H2SSalmonella, Proteus, Yersinia
who gets recurrent infections with certain catalase + organisms?chronic granulomatous disease (NADPH oxidase deficiency)
yellow sulfur granulesactinomyces israelii
yellow pigmentS. aureus
blue-green pigmentpseudomonas aeruginosa
red pigmentserratia marcescens
metachromatic granulescorynebacterium diphtheriae (blue and red color)
V or Y formationcorynebacterium diphtheriae
protein Avirulence factor that binds Fc region of IgG and prevents opsonization and phagocytosis. Expressed by S. aureus
IgA proteasevirulence factor that cleaves IgA to colonize respiratory mucosa. Secreted by S. pneuma, H. flu type B, Neisseria
M proteinvirulence factor that helps prevent phagocytosis. GAS. Molecular mimicry--shares similar epitopes to human cellular proteins
Type III secretion systeminjectisome. Needle-like protein appendage facilitating direct delivery of toxins from certain g - bacteria to eukaryotic host cell. Pseudomonas, Salmonella, Shigela, E. coli
bloody diarrheacampylobacter, E. histolytica, EHEC, EIEC, Salmonella, Shigella, Y. enterocolitica
watery diarrheaC. diff, C. perf, ETEC, giardia, cryptosporidum, V. cholerae, rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus
spore forming bacteriabacillus anthracis, bacillus cereus, clostridium botulinum, C. dif, C. perf, C. tetani, Coxiella burnetii
form dextransenterococcus, strep viridans
exotoxin encoded by beta-prophagecorynebacterium diphtheria
only gram + with endotoxinlisteria
what is cord factor?virulence factor of TB. It increases TNF alpha and recruits other macrophages
serpentine shaped virulence factorcord factor
before putting a patient on inflixumab, you should probably...test with a ppd bc this is a TNFalpha inhibitor

special groups for pneumonia

Question Answer
alcoholics and IVDUS. pneumo, Klebsiella, S. aureus
aspirationanaerobes (peptosstreptococcus, fusobacterium, prevotella, bacteroides)
atypicalmycoplasma, legionella, chlamydia
cystic fibrosisPseudomonas, S. aureus, S. pneumo
immunocompromisedS. aureus, enteric g - rods, fungi, viruses, P. jirovecci with HIV
nosocomialS. aureus, Pseudomonas
postviralS. aureus, H. flue, S. peumo

rando associations

Question Answer
ascending paralysisguillon bare syndrome in campylobacter
descending paralysisC. botulinum
ADP ribosylation of EF-2corynebacterium diphtheria (diptheria toxin), psuedomonas aeroginosa (exotoxin A)
reheated fried ricebacillus cereus
black escharbacillus anthracus
tumbling motilitylisteria
actin polymerizationlisteria
uses host actin cytoskeleton to propel itselfShigella
floppy babyC. botulinum
risus sardonicusC. tetani
spastic paralysisC. tetani
opisthotonusC. tetani (exaggerated arching of the back)
increased risk in complement deficiency?Neisseria
pili/fimbriae with antigenic variationNeisseria
LOS envelopesNeisseria meningitidis
bilateral adrenal infarctionNeisseria meningitidis
invades M cells of peyers patchesShigella
resistant to cold temperaturesYersinia enterocolitica, Listeria (can still grow in refrigerated foods)
flea vectoryersinia pestis
prairie dog as reservoiryersinia pestis
bubonic plagueyersinia pestis
grows at 42 degrees celsiuscampylobacter jejune (likes heat!)
causes reactive arthritis (reiter syndrome)campylobacter jejuni, shigella, salmonella, yersinia, chlamydia
use fimbriaeNeisseria, E. coli, Cholera
hyaluronidase productionStaph, Group A strep, C. diff (digests extracellular ground substance and enhances ability to spread)
have dipicolinic acid in their corespore-forming bacteria. This helps them remain resistant to heat and chemicals.
how do you kill spores?autoclave by steaming at 121 degrees C for 15 minutes
main recevoir of mycobacterium leprae in USarmadillo
glove and stocking neuropathy?hansen's disease (mycobacterium leprae)
lion facesmycobacterium leprae
weil's diseasecaused by leptospirosis. liver dysfunction and jaundice
spread by louse/licerickettsia prowezecki
produce hyaluronidaseenzyme to digest extracellular ground substance and enhance ability to spread. Staph, Group A strep (progenies), C. diff
what type of infection can steven's johnson's syndrome present 2 weeks after?CMV, mycoplasma
pathogens most commonly associated with secondary bacterial pneumonia after influenza infection(a.k.a. bacterial superinfection) staph aureus, strep pneuma, H. flu
what pathogens cause watery diarrhea?C. diff, C. perf, ETEC, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, V. cholera, Rotavirus, Norovirus, Adenovirus, Legionella

Name the toxin

Question Answer
Corynebacterium diphtheriaeDiphtheria toxin
Pseudomonasexotoxin A
shigellashiga toxin
EHECshiga like toxin
ETECheat labile (cAMP) and heat stable (cGMP) toxin
Bacillus anthracisedema toxin
vibriocholera toxin
bordetellapertussis toxin, Adenylate cyclase toxin like anthracis EF, tracheal toxin
C. tetanitetanospasmin
C. botulinumbotulinum toxin
C. perfalpha toxin
S. pyogenesStreptylysin O
S. aureusTSST-1
S. pyogenesExotoxin A
genes encoded in lysogenic phage for theseShigA-like toxin, Botulinum toxin, Cholera toxin, Diphtheria toxin, Erythrogenic toxin of strep pyogenes

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