Back & Upper Extremity Muscles

kaffetrakter's version from 2015-10-13 20:25

intrinsic muscles of the back

Question Answer
splenius capitis - innervationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
splenius capitis - action (unilateral)laterally bends & rotates neck to SAME side
splenius capitis - action (bilateral)extends head & neck
splenius capitis - attachmentsspinous processes C7-T4 --> mastoid process & superior nuchal line
splenius cervicis - innervationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
splenius cervicis - action (unilateral)laterally bends & rotates neck to SAME side
splenius cervicis - action (bilateral)extends head & neck
splenius cervicis - attachmentsspinous processes C7-T4 --> transverse processes C1-C4
semispinalis capitis - innervationdorsal rami of cervical spinal nerves
semispinalis capitis - action (unilateral)extends neck & rotates to OPPOSITE side
semispinalis capitis - action (bilateral)extends head & neck
semispinalis capitis - attachmentsspinous processes C7-T6 --> between superior & inferior nuchal lines
3 erector spinae muscles (M -> L)spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
iliocostalis - innervationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
iliocostalis - action (unilateral)lateral flexion to SAME side
iliocostalis - action (bilateral)extends vertebral column
iliocostalis - attachmentsposterior iliac crest & sacrum, spinous processes of sacrum & inf lumbar, supraspinous ligament --> lower ribs & cervical transverse processes
longissimus - innervationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
longissimus - action (unilateral)lateral flexion to SAME side
longissimus - action (bilateral)extends vertebral column
longissimus - attachmentsposterior iliac crest & sacrum, spinous processes of sacrum & inf lumbar, supraspinous ligament --> ribs, thoracic transverse processes, mastoid process
spinalis - innervationdorsal rami of spinal nerves
spinalis - action (unilateral)lateral flexion to SAME side
spinalis - action (bilateral)extends vertebral column
spinalis - attachmentsposterior iliac crest & sacrum, spinous processes of sacrum & inf lumbar, supraspinous ligament --> spinous processes in upper thoracic & mid-cervical regions, skull
serratus posterior superior - innervation2nd-5th intercostal nerves
serratus posterior superior - actionelevates ribs during inspiration
serratus posterior superior - attachmentsspinous processes of C7-T3 --> 2nd-5th ribs
serratus posterior inferior - innervationventral rami T9-T12 spinal nerves
serratus posterior inferior - actionpulls ribs down & out during inspiration
serratus posterior inferior - attachmentsspinous processes T11-L2 --> last 4 ribs

extrinsic muscles of the shoulder

Question Answer
trapezius - innervationaccessory nerve (CN XI)
trapezius - action (upper)elevates scapula & upwardly rotates scapula
trapezius - action (middle)retraction of scapula
trapezius - action (lower)depresses scapula & upwardly rotates scapula
trapezius - originThree parts (descending, transverse and ascending) external occipital protuberance & spinous processes C7-T12
trapezius - insertionclavicle (lateral 3rd), acromion, scapular spine
latissimus dorsi - innervationthoracodorsal nerve (C6-8)
latissimus dorsi - actionextends, adducts, & medially rotates the humerus
latissimus dorsi - originthoracolumbar fascia and the posterior third of the iliac crest, spinous processes T6-T12, 10th to 12th ribs and inferior angle of scapula
latissimus dorsi - insertionLesser tubercle of humerus
rhomboid major - innervationdorsal scapular nerve (C5)
rhomboid major - actionaDducts, retracts, & downwardly rotates scapula
rhomboid major - originspinous processes T2-T5
rhomboid major - insertionmedial border of scapula
rhomboid minor - innervationdorsal scapular nerve (C5)
rhomboid minor - actionaDducts, retracts, & downwardly rotates scapula
rhomboid minor - originspinous processes C7-T1
rhomboid minor - insertionmedial border of scapula
levator scapulae - innervationdorsal scapular nerve (C5)
levator scapulae - actionelevates & downwardly rotates scapula
levator scapulae - attachmentstransverse processes C1-C4 --> superior part of medial border and superior angle of scapula
pectoralis major - innervationmedial & lateral pectoral nerves
pectoralis major - actionaDducts & medially rotates humerus
pectoralis major - originClavicular part: Medial half of the anterior surface of the clavicle
Sternocostal part: Sternal membrane and the cartilages of the 2nd-6th ribs, + deep origins from 4th to 5th costal cartilage.
Abdominal part: Anterior layer of the uppermost part of the rectus sheet.
pectoralis major - insertionCrest of the greater tubercle of humerus, in such a manner that it forms a pocket which is open above.
pectoralis minor - innervationmedial pectoral nerve
pectoralis minor - actionprotracts & depresses scapula
pectoralis minor - origin3rd-5th ribs
pectoralis minor - insertioncoracoid process of scapula
serratus anterior - innervationlong thoracic nerve
serratus anterior - actionprotracts & upwardly rotates scapula, stabilizes scapula on thoracic wall
serratus anterior - originexternal/lateral surfaces of ribs 1-8
serratus anterior - insertionThe medial margin, from the inferior angle to the superior angle of scapula

scapulohumeral muscles

Question Answer
coracobrachialis - innervationmusculocutaneous nerve
coracobrachialis - actionflexion & aDduction of the arm
coracobrachialis - origincoracoid process
coracobrachialis - insertionmedial mid-shaft of humerus
deltoid - innervationaxillary nerve
deltoid - action (anterior)anteflex humerus, 2/3 shoulder abduction
deltoid - action (middle)aBduct humerus
deltoid - action (posterior)Retroflexion, lateral rotation and 1/3 of abduction
deltoid - originspine and acromion of scapula, lateral 1/3 of clavicle
deltoid - insertiondeltoid tuberosity of humerus
teres major - innervationlower subscapular nerve
teres major - actionmedially rotates humerus, aDducts humerus
teres major - origininferior angle of scapula
teres major - insertionCrest of the lesser tubercle
teres minor - innervationaxillary nerve
teres minor - actionstabilizes shoulder joint & laterally rotates humerus
teres minor - originlateral border of scapula
teres minor - insertiongreater tubercle of humerus
supraspinatus - innervationsuprascapular nerve
supraspinatus - actionstabilizes shoulder joint & aBducts humerus
supraspinatus - originsupraspinous fossa
supraspinatus - insertiongreater tubercle of humerus
infraspinatus - innervationsuprascapular nerve
infraspinatus - actionstablizes shoulder joint & laterally rotates humerus
infraspinatus - origininfraspinous fossa
infraspinatus - insertiongreater tubercle of humerus
subscapularis - innervationupper & lower subscapular nerves
subscapularis - actionstabilizes shoulder joint & medially rotates humerus
subscapularis - originsubscapular fossa
subscapularis - insertionlesser tubercle of humerus

muscles acting on elbow & radioulnar joints

Question Answer
brachialis - innervationmusculocutaneous nerve
brachialis - actionflexion of the forearm
brachialis - attachmentsdistal anterior humerus --> ulnar tuberosity & coronoid process
biceps brachii - innervationmusculocutaneous nerve
biceps brachii - actionflexion & supination of the forearm
biceps brachii - origin (long head)supraglenoid tubercle
biceps brachii - origin (short head)coracoid process
biceps brachii - insertionradial tuberostiy and the bicipital aponeurosis
triceps brachii - innervationradial nerve
triceps brachii - actionextends forearm
triceps brachii - origin (long head)infraglenoid tubercle
triceps brachii - origin (lateral head)posterior superior humerus
triceps brachii - origin (medial head)posterior inferior humerus
triceps brachii - insertionolecranon process of ulna
anconeous - innervationradial nerve
anconeous - actionextends forearm
anconeous - attachmentslateral epicondyle of humerus --> olecrenon of ulna
brachioradialis - innervationradial nerve
brachioradialis - actionflexes forearm
brachioradialis - attachmentslateral supracondylar ridge of humerus --> lateral, distal end of radius
supinator - innervationdeep branch of radial nerve
supinator - actionsupinates forearm
supinator - attachmentslateral epicondyle of humerus, crest of ulna --> lateral, posterior, & anterior surfaces of proximal radius
pronator teres - innervationmedian nerve
pronator teres - actionpronates & flexes forearm
pronator teres - attachmentsmedial epicondyle of humerus, coronoid process of ulna --> middle of lateral surface of radius, aka the pronator tuberocity
pronator quadratus - innervationanterior interosseous nerve
pronator quadratus - actionpronates forearm
pronator quadratus - attachmentsdistal anterior ulna --> distal anterior radius