Bac-T - Midterm - Harri

drraythe's version from 2015-06-09 04:49

Wed. review

Question Answer
Is a ringworm infection systemic? NOT systemic
habitat of microsporums?zoophilic (so tiny, need a bigger animal to help them out)
How do you diagnose dermatophytes? florescent light (it would fluoresce) / sample for slides / SAB medium
WHERE do you take a sample of a ringworm lesion? What do you see?EDGE/periphery of lesion (center already dead) and see arthrospores and hyphae
when you culture dermatophyte, what do you look for? hypae and MACROcondida
what drugs to treat dermatophytes? which DON'T work?ketoconazole and grisofulvin work..... NOT nystatin
disinfectants for dermatophytes?enilconazole, sodium hypochlorite, formalin
habitat of Aspergillus fumigatus? saphrophite
how is an animal infected with Aspergillus fumigatus? inhalation of spores
diagnosis of Aspergillus fumigatus? lactophenol cotton blue (stain)
What can aspergillus cause in birds?brooder pneumonia
what type of fungus is aspergillus? dermatophyte. NOT dimorphic
what drugs to treat aspergillus?ketoconazole and related drugs
what are the three main yeasts? Which isn't a commensal? Candida, malassezia, and crytpococcus (crypto is not a commensal, maybe in birds but pretty much not)
which yeast can cause systemic disease?candida
which yeasts can be gram stained? candida and malassezia
shape of yeast?circular, budding
shape of malassezia?peanut shaped
which animal is most susceptible to cryptococcus?cats
virulence factor of cryptococcus?capsule (only in body, not enviro)
what diseases are caused by cryptococcus?sinus infections, encephalitis. (cat with mucopurulent or hemorrhagic nasal discharge? crypto.)
how would you describe dimorphic fungi in their two environments/forms?Mycelial in outside world, yeast inside host.
three dimorphic fungi found in USA in soil which cause disease? blastomyces, histoplasma, coccidioides
which animal is most susceptible to infection via dimorphic fungi? how is it infected?DOGs, via inhalation of dust/dirt
difficulty of treating dimorphic fungi?it is difficult to treat advanced cases
symptoms of dimorphic fungi infections?difficulty breathing (lungs have yeast forms in them), weight loss
how to identify coccidioides specifically? huge bodies filled with sacks of spores in lungs- "spherules" (that cocc has a sack--hurr. Thank you Steph)
what fungi are you not allowed to culture?Coccidioidomycosis
habitat of zygomycosis?saphrophyte
how common is zygomycosis? rare-- often found in immunocompromised animals.
treatment/ease of treatment of zygomycosis? difficult to treat, must use amphotericin B
describe how mycotoxicosis disease works? the TOXINS cause the disease, not the organisms
what medicine to treat myotoxicosis? what NOT?need antitoxins or toxin binders. Antibiotics DON'T help.
symptoms of mycotoxicosis?hemorrhagic diarrhea (etc)
example of mycotoxicosis disease he seemed to care about?facial eczema
staphylococcus intermedius affects what animal?dog (not cattle) (dog in the middle with you, yeah yeah yeah!)
shape and grams of staph?Gram positive, cocci in bunches
staphylococcus aureus affects cows how? chickens?mastitis for cows, bumble foot for chickens
virulence factor for staph? Beta lactamASE! therefore penicillin NOT effective!
habitat of streptococcus? need a carrier animal to survive (zoophilic)
shape and grams of strep?gram positive and cocci in chains or pairs
what should we know about penicillin and streptococcus? it is more susceptible to penicillin than staphylococcus is
what causes strangles in a horse?streptococcus
symptoms of strangles?mandibular atrophy, enlarged lymph nodes (Lymphadenopathy), fluid accumulation
treatment of strangles? is there a vaccine?there IS a vaccine, CAN treat with penicillin G, isolate animal because it is contagious. (I'll strangle a G-dawg)
what animal(s) does streptococcus suis affect? What does it cause?PIGS. Causes meningitis, arthritis, and septicemia in young pigs (Sam the Suis)
what animal(s) does streptococcus agalactiae affect? what does it cause?Cows, mastitis
what animal(s) does streptococcus canis affect? what does it cause?DOGS and cats. Causes puppy strangles, pyoderma, kitten septicemia
what animal(s) does corynebacterium renale affect? what does it cause?Cows-- UTI (renale=renal=kidney)
grams and shape of corynebacterium?gram positive, pleomorphic rods
how would you treat corynebacterium renale?HIGHLY SUSCEPTIBLE to penicillin (Pee Penicilin)
how would you treat corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis? NOT penicillin. Not treatable-- prevent or cull
what can corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis cause?caseous lymphadenitis (missed the Lungs, went for the Lymph)
what does C. chauvoei cause? onset?BLACK LEG in rumis, ESP young/thriving cattle. Sudden onset and acute.
what animal is affected by rhotococcus equi? what does it cause?HORSES. causes lung abscesses
grams and shape of rhotococcus?gram positive coccoid OR short/pleomorphic rods
Of rhotococcus equi and horse strangles, which has the vaccine? strangles, none for rhotococcus
of rhotococcus equi and horse strangles, which is a intercellular pathogen? rhotococcus
habitat of rhotococcus equi? it's a commensal of horse intestine, meaning it can be in manure and soil
how does one control rhotococcus equi?control dust inhalation to control disease
how does one treat rhotococcus equi?erythromycin+rifampin. NOT penicillin in late cases (penicillin G used prophylactically in foals) (R.E. uses R&E)
animals affected with arcanobacterium pyogenes?ruminants and pigs
grams and shape of arcanobacterium?gram positive pleomorphic rod (branching!)
what does arcanobacterium pyogenes cause? (ACTINOMYCETES) abscesses, pyogenic infections
how does one treat arcanobacterium pyogenes?penicillin is drug of choice (Pyogenes Penicillin)
what does actinomycetes bovis cause?lumpy jaw in cattle (the word actinomycetes is lumpy like the dz--aint mastitis- no actin')
what does nocardia cause? nodules/abscesses/ulcers in dogs, mastitis in cows
grams and shape of nocardia?gram positive branching rods
how do you treat nocardia? (dog? cow?)DOGS: trimethoprim-sulfa or tetracyclines (NOT penicillin). COWS: no treatment, cull (having NOheart-- just Too Terrible for cows )
what is dermatophilus?A BACTERIA. not a fungi (that is a dermatophyte)
gram and shape of dermatophilus?gram positive branching (rail-road tracks)
what does dermatophilosis congolensis cause?"rain scald" (phile=love of. LOVE THE BURN OF SCALD)
how does one treat dermatophilosis?long acting tetracyclines (or penicillin+streptomycin) (Scalding hot T(ea)--also there is a T,P, and S in the word)
what does erysipelothrix cause? swine erysipelas (septicemia, meningitis, skin gets diamond disease.
grams and shape of erysipelothrix?gram positive rods
animals affected by erysipelothrix?SWINE! also turkey.
treatment of erysipelothrix? Is there a vaccine?they have good vaccines! also penicillin/ampicillin (big word. simple treatment)
how does an animal acquire listeria? how is this avoided?ingestion of bad silage. Having acidic silage will prevent this (less than 4.5 pH)
grams and shape of listeria?gram positive coccobacilli/rods (listerine in an oval bottle)
what does listeria cause?infects blood(septicemia)-->nerves/brain(meningoencephalitis)= "circling disease", ABORTION in ruminants (drinking listerine will make your brain go in circles)
treatment of listeria? Vaccine?early stages treatable (penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline), late stages are NOT treatable. NO VACCINE because intercellular (if youre too Late for Listeria, you cant pat yourself on the back) (alcohol permeable to membranes--intercellular= no vaccine)
susceptibility of animals to anthrax?Cattle/ruminants > horse >pig. NOT birds
grams and shape of bacillus?gram positive LONG rods
unique about bacillus anthracis compared to other bacillus? HAS a capsule (others don't) and IS pathogenic (others aren't)
virulence factors of bacillus anthracis?SPORE forming, CAPSULE, and TRIPARTATE toxin (edema factor + protective antigen + lethal factor)
what does bacillus anthracis cause? (symptoms)hemorrhage, shock, death. BLACK, TARRY EXUDATE from rectum
treatment of bacillus anthracis? is there a vaccine?there IS a vaccine, this disease is so acute that treatment is usually too late (could use penicillin though)
precautions about bacillus anthracis? NO POST MORTUM. REPORT TO AUTHORITIES. generally incinerate carcass
do clostridia have a capsule? NOPE
grams and shape of clostridia?gram positive LARGE spore forming rods
two main (his focus) diseases of clostridia? how do they work? (other ones?)clostridium tetani and clostridium via NEUROTOXINS (also perfringens, novyi, and chauvoei)
type of paralysis for tetanus? Botulism?tetanus: RIGID. botulism: FLACID
when diagnosing tetanus, what are you looking for (morphologically)a rod with a terminal spore ("tetanus racket")
which would you check blood for-- tetanus or botulism?Blood for Botulism
how do you treat tetanus? is there a vaccine?GOOD VACCINE, also penicillin/anti-toxin (a pen in your anus)
how do you treat botulism? is there a vaccine?anti-toxins...NO ANTIBIOTICS WILL HELP (vaccine for cow) (most toxic---nothing can help you now muwahaha)
of tetanus and botulism, which affects birds, and how? Botulism Birds. "limber neck" (hanging limp), can't fly
how does clostridium novyi infect animals?WOUND INFECTIONS (I vy to hurt you)
what animal(s) does clostridium perfringens affect? diarrhea/hemorrhagic enteritis in DOGS. INJECTION MYOSITIS (usually in large animals)
how do you diagnose clostridium perfringens? (dogs)direct smear of feces, looking for large numbers of clostridia and spores (/toxin) in it
what does mycobacterium cause? (main disease). which mycobacterium? what does disease look like?Tuberculosis... M. tuberculosis/bovis. Caseous lesions, calcification can occur
grams and shape of mycobacterium?"gram positive" but NOT REALLY- USE ACID FAST. Rods (pleomorphic)
diagnosis (stain) of mycobacterium? ACID FAST STAIN (primary stain is red, secondary blue, which is basically opposite of grams)
air requirements of mycobacterium? culture media and isolation time?AEROBIC (why it likes the lungs), EGG based media, isolation 4-8 weeks (very slow growing)
TEST for mycobacterium?tuberculin test
monkeys are highly suseptible to what?tuberculosis
elephans are sensitive to what? problems with it?TB. also have to use rifampin which is expensive and elephants are.....large.
what is tuberculin?extract of TB (diagnostic reagent)
are food animals treated for TB?nope
vaccine for TB?BCG (big cock gobbler, the TB)
are birds able to get TB?yes
Johne's disease is what?mycobacterium paratuberculosis
Johne's disease affects what? Symptoms?ruminants, esp. bovine. CHRONIC debilitating, chronic diarrhea
possible connection between Johne's dz in rumis and ____ in ppl?chrone's
where do Johne's dz organism multiply?inside intrAepithelial macrophages of INTESTINE
stain for johne's dz?acid fast-- mycobacterium paratuberculosis
treatment of johne's dz?no treatment-- cull
mycobacterium leprae causes what? affects what in body?leprosy. chronic, affects skin and peripheral nerves
M leprae affects what animals?people*, armadillo*, monkeys rarely, NO DOMESTIC ANIMALS
drug for M leprae?Dapsone (sulfonimide-like compound) (just because youre a leper doesnt mean youre not dapper, son)
mycobactrium lepraeMURIUM causes what? habitat of bacterium? carriers of dz?feline leprosy. NOT zoonotic! rats are carriers
how does Johne's affect calves?no clinical signs in calves- bact takes long time to show up

Clicker Qs

Question Answer
clicker concept: which two antibiotics are used well together?sulfonamides & trimethoprim
clicker concept: how do transport swabs affect multiplication?designed to NOT encourage multiplication
clicker concept: what kind of drug is metronidazole?ANTIBIOTIC not antifungal (tronna be a fungi, but hes not)
clicker concept: is nystatin effective against ringworm?no, only effective against yeast
clicker concept: describe symptoms of ringworm?circular areas of alopecia, erythema and crusts
clicker concept: which drugs are effective against c. albicans?ketaconazole & nystatin
clicker concept: animal most susceptible to Cryptococcus neoformans?CATS
clicker concept: what is a common cause of metritis & vaginitis in mares?candida
clicker concept: a dog with damage to its turbinate bones most likely has?aspergillus
clicker concept: what does candida look similar to?looks like a cocci bacteria (such as staph) but staph is much smaller and isn't budding
clicker concept: what produces sporidesmin, which sloughs off skin of affected animal?Pithomyces chartarum (facial eczema) (when the skin comes off you see the pith, then shart yourself)
clicker concept: how do you treat mycotoxins?NOT antibiotics or antifungals. use antitoxins and toxin binding drugs
clicker concept: common cause of pyoderma in dog?S. intermedius
clicker concept: which horse disease has a vaccine?strangles (strep equi)
clicker concept: would you treat staph or strep with penicillin?STREP, staph produces beta lactamase
clicker concept: is strep saphrophytic? staph?neither can live outside host for long
clicker concept: would you treat corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis with penicillin?no...the pseudotuberculosis strain is untreatable
clicker concept: what causes bastard strangles?s. equi
clicker concept: common cause of abscesses in ruminants?Arcanobacterium/Truperella pyogenesis
clicker concept: would you treat Nocardia & Actinomyces with penicillin?NO
clicker concept: what would you treat "rain scald" / Streptothricosis with?tetracyclines (scalding hot T(ea) )
clicker concept: arthritis or skin conditions in pigs are likely to be caused by (4)E. rhusiopathiae, Arcanobacterium pyogenes (A (r) Cow and Pig), Staph. hyicus, Strep. suis
clicker concept: is listeriosis contagious?nope
clicker concept: if there was an anthrax outbreak in cattle, would you administer vaccine and penicillin to all animals?no
clicker concept: how would you diagnose tetanus?examine wound smear stained w grams
clicker concept: would you give penicillin to an animal with botulism?nope
clicker concept: how would you test for clostridium perfringens in dogs?test for toxin/bact in feces
clicker concept: If you are trying to test exudation of blood from rectum, you are prolly trying to test?anthrax