Bac-T - Midterm 2

leslieb's version from 2015-09-16 14:54


Question Answer
gram of staph? shape? shape while interacting with fellow staph?positive, cocci (round), bunches/clusters
reaction to catlase test? what is the catalase test?Positive. add hydrogen peroxide, if it bubbles, it's staph (not strep)
where does staph usually live?commencals of skin and mucuos membranes
what type of lesions does staph cause?purulent. or a erythematous papular rash.
where does staph readily multiply? where can it live that others cant?in milk and cheese, CAN survive in hospital enviro.
how would you describe the pathogenicity of staph?opportunistic (injuries, lowered defense)
virulence factors are depending on what? list 5.coagulase (clots plasma), hemolysins, tissue destroying enzymes/toxins (lipase, hyaluronidase, exfoliative toxins, leukocidin), beta-lactamases.
what does staph cause in all animal species?skin infections, suppurative (discharging pus) wound infections, abscesses, joint infections
what does staph cause in cattle/sheep/goats?mastits, tick pyemia in lambs
what does staph cause in pigs?exudative dermatitis/grease pig disease(young pigs), mastitis
what does staph cause in dogs?otitis externa, UTI, skin infections, vaginal infections
what does staph cause in cats?secondary skin infections
what does staph cause in horses?botryomycosis (spermatic cord)
what does staph cause in poultrry?bumble foot, arthritis
what does staph cause in pet birds?diarrhea
name 4 main species of staph, and two animal-species-related ones?S. aureus, S. intermedius, S. epidermidis, S. hyicus. (S. felis for cats, S. schliefrei for dogs)
S. aureus hemolysis rxn? animal species associated with? related diseases?yes, double zone hemolysis. all species. important in bovine mastitis.
S. intermedius hemolysis rxn? animal species associated with? related diseases?double zone heolysis. dogs. pyoderma, otitis, UTI, eye infections
S. epidermidis hemolysis rxn? animal species associated with? related diseases?no hemolysis. cats. mostly non-pathogenic, occasinal skin infection in cats.
S. hyicus hemolysis rxn? animal species associated with? related diseases?non-hemolytic, pigs, exudative dermatitis (greasy pig disease)
two staphs that do double zone hemolysis?aureus and intermedius
diagnosis of staph?smear, culture for antibiotic sensitivity, catalase test, coagulase test
immunity for staph?bacterins (vaccines made from dead bact.) limited usefulness
drugs to treat staph (in general)? note about this? For mastitis? last resort?*test for resistance* penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephlasporins (beta-lactams). For mastitis: cloxacillin methicillin. Last resort: vancomycin
forms of staph mastitis?peracute (about to die--gangrenous), acute, subacute (between acute and chronic), chronic, subclinical (have it, but not sick enough for definite signs)
symptoms of peracute (gangrenous) staph mastitis?fever, depression, anorexia, recumbancy, tachycardia
diagnosis of staph mastitis?culture, somatic cell count (SCC), california mastitis test (CMT).
treatment? special note about treatment? (staph mastitis)*antimicrobial suseptibility test required* intramammary infusion (and IM or IV for acute)
what is the predominant coagulase positive staph on normal canine skin?s intermedius
treatment of s. hycus infection?TMS (trimethoprimesufoxidide) systemic and topical antiseptics (cetrimide), fluid replacement


Question Answer
gram reaction and shape of staph? when in groups looks like what?gram positive cocci in chains or pairs
catalase reaction of strep?negative
type of hemolysis on BA? explain what types mean.Beta (complete), alpha (partial), gamma (none)
classifications of strep into groups how, what are the groups?serological classification (latex aggln. kit) into lancefield groups A,B,C,D,F,G
greening on blood agar may indicate what?incomplete (alpha) hemolysis
does strep have a capsule?yes. antiphagocytic.
habitat of strep?commensals or obligate pathogens of skin/mucous membranes
will a strep infetion come from outside or inside?endogenous OR exogenous
what does strep have to prevent phagocytosis?capsule AND antiphagocytic surface components (eg M proteins)
what is the most pathogenic hemolysis?beta
3 examples of virulence factors of strephemolysin, streptokinase (indirectly digests fibrin clots), hyaluronidase (digest CT)
streptococcus canis-- animals affected, where in body and why? what do you treat with?DOGS and cats. commensal of anal/vaginal mucosa. amoxicillin and clavamox
what does s. canis cause?[suppurative (pussy) conditions..."puppy strangles", juvenile pyoderma, lymphadenitis], toxic shock syndrome (due to endotoxin), neonatal septicema in kittens, necrotizing fasciitis
what does s. equi cause?equine strangles
what type of pathogen is s. equi?obligate pathogen
how is s. equi strangles transmitted?horse to horse via fomites (inanimate objects)
what is bastard strangles? cause by?s. equi...abscesses in many organs. chronic
treatment of s. equi strangles?penicillin to infected/in contact horses
are vaccines effective? in s. equi strangles?partially (bacterin, m protein extract, modified vacceine)
what causes equine pneumonia, endrometritis?s. equi subspecies
S. Suis affects what animal? is is horizontally transmissible?PIGS. many ZOONOTIC
S. suis can cause what diesases?meningitis, arthritis, septicemia in young pigs (also pneumonia, endocarditis, abortion)
S. Suis treatment?penicillin, ampicillin or tiamulin
what strep strain is associated with Chronic bovine mastitis?S. agalactiae
strep associated with acute bovine mastits? (2)S. dys/a-galactiae, S. Uberis
treatment of bovine mastits (strep)?penicillin/cloxacillin intramammary
strep- "strangles in hogs" aka? agent? eradicated where?streptococcal lymphadenitis. caused by S. porcinus eradicated in US


Question Answer
shape/grams rxn/ cause?pleomorphic rods, gram positive, cause pyogenic infections
what does C. Renale cause? xmission? major sign? treatment?UTI cattle (pyelonephritis in cattle), xmit via venereal/urine splash. Purulent blood stained urine. TREAT w/penicillin
what does C. pseudotuberculosis cause?caseous (cheese like) lymphadenitis in sheep/goats
rhodococcus equi (formally known as?) shape? where does it live?G pos coccoid or short/pleomorphic rods. habitat is intestine of horse.
rhodococcus equi- disease it causes? tx?Causes suppurative bronchopneumonia of foals. erythromycin, rifampin for clinical cases. prophylactic tx= penicilin G in newborn foals+ hyperimmune serum in newborns
arcanobacterium pyogenes- aka? animals affected? habitat? type of pathogen?aka actinomycetes. sheep, cattle, pigs. mucous membs, skin...OPPORTUNISTIC
diseases caused by arcanobacterium (8)abscesses, mastitis, pyometritis, arthritis, liver abscesses, plays role in sheep foot rot, SC abscesses, kidney infections
Treatment of A. pyogenes?penicillin effective.
what does actinomyces bovis cause?lumpy jaw in cattle
what does a. viscosus cause?granulomatous abscesses of skin/SC in dogs/cats
what does a. suis cause? tx?cystitis/pyelonephritis in pigs. PENICILLIN


Question Answer
shape of nocardia? most common species? habitat?G-pos branching, N. asteroides. saphrophyte
nocardia causes what in bovine? prevention/control?mastitis.. culling
canine nocardia causes what?cutaneous form, resp. form, disseminated form
treatment of canine nocardiosis?trimethoprim-sulfa or tetracyclines...penicillin NOT EFFECTIVE


Question Answer
what does dermatophilus congolensis cause? in what?dermatophilosis/ infection in cattle/horses/sheep/goats
other names for dermatophilus congolensis?rain scald/ rot, lumpy wool dz, strawberry foot rot
what causes the infection in dermatophilus congolensis?the zoospores
treatment of dermatophilus congolensis?penicillin + streptomycin OR long acting tetracyclines

erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

Question Answer
erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes what?"swine erysipelas" (diamond skin disease) [also septicemia in turkeys, arthritis in sheep]
gram rxn? shape?g pos, RODS which become filamentous in chronic infection
infection of non-immune pigs?orally via fish meal/contaminated feed
4 forms of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?(1) septicemic form [young pigs, fever and red-purple skin patches, death] (2) skin form [diamond shaped red raised areas, necrosis, scabs] (3) arthritis [chronic] (4) cardiac form [valvular endocarditis, dyspnea, death]
erysipelothrix in turkeys? how and what happens? tx?from soil contaminated with pigs....swollen snood, septicemia, death (penicillin IM for flock)
treatment of erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae?penicillin/ampicillin- good vaccines out too, cull chronics

Listeria monocytogenes

Question Answer
causes what dz? important charateristic of dz?listeriosis NON CONTAGIOUS.
gram rxn? shape? temp to grow?sm. gram pos coccobacilli/rods. 5-45*C
habitat of listeria? virulence factors?saphrophyte of poor quality silage. virulent via enzymes (esp. listeriolysin O) and also a glyceride factor= monocytosis
4 dz manifestations?(1) neural form (circling dz- meningoencephalitis) (2) abortion (sheep, cattle) (3) septisemic form (chinchillas, poultry, young rumi-- multifocal necrosis of liver, spleen (4) iritis, keratoconjunctavitis, mastits (bovine) --silage implicated
control/tx of listeria?elim bad silage..penicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline in early stages in high doses


Question Answer
most bacillus have what pathogenicity? habitat? geographically?most non, except bacillus anthrasis. Live in SOIL. Africa.
gram of bacillus? shape of bact? arrangement of bac? shape of colonies?postive, large spore-forming (anthrasis=encapsulated rest arent) rods. can be in chains or threads. colonies- "ground glass" appearance and irreg edges.
symptoms of anthrax? (calf? horse?)calf=septicemia, death, exudation of tarry blood from recutm. Horse=edematous swelling of neck, dyspnea, high fever
susceptibility from most to least?RUMIs > humans (greater than or equal to) horses > pigs > BIRDS NOT SUSCEPTIBLE!!
virulence factors of anthrax?(1) capsule antiphagocytic (2) tripartate toxin of [(a) edema factor (b) protective antigen (c)lethal factor]---> all three required for full activity
anthrax spread?flies/carnivorous animals can spread it, water hole
Tx.. vaccine? meds?You CAN vaccinate. Meds= penicillin or ciprofloxacin in humans
control of anthrax...of carcass? disinfections? of environment? Carcass= incinerate or bury deep in calcium oxide. Disinfect=10% formalin. enviro= burn contaminated fecal matter/vegetation, close infected waterholes, keep vultures and coyotes away, remove healthy animals


Question Answer
gram and shape of clostridium? respiration? Habitat?Gram pos, SPORE forming rods....old cells appear gram neg. Anaerobic. Soil or GI.
how does clostridium cause dz?via toxins, enzymes
what are the toxin forming (neurotoxic) non-invasive species of clostridium?C. tetani, C. botulinum
what are the histotoxic clostridiums?C. chaucoel, C. septicum, C. novyi
what is the enterotoxic clostridium?C. perfringens
C tetani looks like what? causes what/ symptoms? habitat?drumstick terminal spores, tetanus (lockjaw, paralysis, protrusion of 3rd eyelid, drooling), lives in soil
prevention/tx? of C tetanivaccination with tetanus toxoid, tx with antitoxin, penicillin. protect animal from light and noise.
C. botulinum causes what? types? unique about this toxin?causes BOTULISM, toxigenic types A-G, MOST POTENT biological poison
source of C botulinum?feed, abattoir offal, dead fish, maggots....honey with spores (infant botulism)
signs of botulism?straddled posture, profuse salivation, paralysed tongue (abdominal breathing from paralysis of diaphragm)
prevention/control of botulism?vaccination (mink, pheasants, cattle=limited use), admin antitoxin, remove birds from water, oral fluids/activated charcoal, prevent exposure
what does C. chauvoei cause? onset?BLACK LEG in rumis, ESP young/thriving cattle. Sudden onset and acute.
C. chauvoei signs/symptoms? prognosis?see lesions, usually in hind leg mm mass. Fever, lameness, crepitus ( cracking) mm. Mostly FATAL
prevention/control?vaccinate cattle in endemic areas. penicillin for sick animals.
what does C. septicum cause?wound edema, abomastitis (braxy-in UK-eat frozen grass). Wound infection! dirty deep wounds. malignant edema/gangrene. VACCINES AVAIL
What does C. novyi cause?"big head" in rams after fighting, "black disease" in sheep (liver fluke predisposes them), bacillary hemoglobinuria
what does C perfringens causes?know: cause diff kinds of toxins) necrotic enteritis in piglets/chickens, classical enterotoxiema in sheep (fatal, wound infecitons), diarrhea/hemorrhagic enteritis in dogs (less common= yellow lamb dz, gangrenous mastitis, struck, hemorrhagic diarrhea in foals)
diagnostic/ tx of C perfingens diarrhea/hemorrhagic enteritis in DOGS?(*MOST COMMON DZ FOR C. PERF). diagnosis=lg number spore forming in feces. tx= tylosin or metronidazole....high fiber diet.
tx of C perfingens?vaccinations (sheep/pigs), penicillin/bacitracin in feed for necrotic enteritis. prev/treat parasitic infections.
tx of C perfingens for clostridial myositis in horses?penicillin or metronidazole


Question Answer
grams? shape?technically positive but DOESNT GRAM STAIN. need to ACID FAST STAIN.
respiration of mycobacterium? media needed? isolation time?STRICT aerobic. Need EGG based media, isolation time for classic species is 4-8wk
classic species of mycobacterium?M tuberculosis, M bovis
what does M bovis cause?tuberculosis in cattle (humans and monkeys too)
what does M tuberculosis cause?TB in humans/parrots/monkeys/elephants
M avium causes what?TB in birds
what does M avium subspecies paratuberculosis cause in who?Johne's Dz in cattle
diagnosis of tuberculosis?tuberculin test (delayed hypersensitivity FYI)