acramer's 2016-03-03 21:31
amphotericin B toxic to kidneys, but still highly effective (sometimes only thing that will work) (B-ware of kidneys)
which drug is toxic? amphotericin B (B-aware of the ter-ror)
ketoconazole ("nizoral") BROAD spectrum (filamentous or yeast), most commonly used
which drug is broad spectrum and most commonly used? ketoconazole (ketocommon)
nystatin narrow spectrum, for candida
what drug would you use to treat candida? is it broad or narrow? nystatin, narrow (want to get grid of yeast, stat! <-every girl ever) (NN)
griseofulvin orally for ringworm infection ( ring worm is grisly)
what would you give for ringworm? how is it administered? griseofulvin, orally
what type of fungi are dermatophytes? what does they cause? symptoms? they are zoonotic dermatomycoses...causes dermatomycosis. symptoms are lesions on skin, hair, and nails, and alopecia, erythema, crusts.
how do you diagnose dermatophytes? diagnose via woods lamp, wet mount (KOH), culture on sabouraud medium.
what is immunity of dermatophytes associated with? delayed type hypersensitivity
what are identifiable structures on wet mount of dermatophytes? hyphae and arthrospores
what culture and what positive sign for dermatophytes? yellow turns to red on fungassay medium (possible white powdery growth also)
m. canis affects what? mainly dogs, also cats (dermatophyte)
m. gypseum affects what? rodents/dogs/horses (dermatophyte)
m. nanum affets what? pigs (dermatophyte)
T. verrucosum affects what? cattle (dermatophyte)
T. equinum affects what? horses (dermatophyte)
T. mentagrophytes affect what? dogs, horses, cats. (dermatophyte)
what is microsporum canis? what kind is it? what animals are affected? shape? a dermatophyte, zoophilic, mainly dogs, also cats. spindle shaped macroconidia
what is microsporum gypseum? what kind? animals affected? shape? a dermatophyte. geophilic. rodents, dogs, horses. boat shaped macroconidia.
what is trichophyton mentagrophytes? what kind? animals affected? shape? dermatophyte, zoophilic. dogs, horses, cats. cigar shaped macroconidium and numerous microconidia.
control of dermatophytes? contaminated areas treated with sodium hypochlorite, formalin, or enilconazole.
treatments for dermatophytes? (horses? topical horses? systemic dogs cats? vaccine?) TOPICAL= lime sulfur, imidazole (ketoconazole) creams, shapmoos, natamycin (horses). SYSTEMIC= griseofulvin*, itraconazole, ketoconazole* oral for dogs, cats. VACCINE= for cats and cattle
What causes aspergillosis? Aspergillus fumigatus
aspergillosis in chicks= ? brooder pneumonia.
aspergillosis in cattle= ? mycotic abortion
aspergillosis in horses=? gutteral pouch mycosis, keratomycosis (keratitis)
aspergillosis in dogs goes where and does what? nasal aspergillosis, destroys turbinate bones, profuse blood tinged exudate from nose.
how would you describe the shape of aspergillus? looks kinda like a rake... foot cell, conidiophore (stem), vesicle with chains of pigmented conidia off of it (head)
what happens in brooder pneumonia? destroy structural barriers of lung
how does mycotic abortion happen with aspergillus? spores go to blood, through placenta, impair circulation, fetal death
what happens in nasal aspergillosis in a dog? destruction of turbinate bones, epistaxis
diagnosis of aspergillosis? KOH wet mount of deep scrapings, see septate hyphae. Lung sample shows conidial heads. Radiograph, rhinoscopy. culture on SAB medium (typical conidial heads)...serological test (AGID) for dogs.
to treat aspergillosis (horses systemic? horses locally? dogs? ) ketoconazole locally and itraconazole systemic for horses. natamycin or miconazole topical for keratitis in horses. Clotrimazole nasal infusion preferred for nasal asper. in dogs (second option= fluconazole)
what 3 yeasts are important for us to know, which ISNT commensal? candida, malassezia, cryptococcus (not commensal)
what form can yeast be in tissue? can have hyphae in tissue
names for infections with yeasts? (3) candidiasis, moniliasis, thrush.
what kind of fungi is candida albicans? yeast
what type of yeast (candida albicans) infections do dogs and cats typically get? mycotic stomatitis (infection of mm of mouth and lips), genital candidiasis
what commensal causes enteritis when animals are on prolonged antibacterial therapy? candida albicans
what kind of candida albicans/moniliasis-based disease can poultry get? Crop mycosis (thrush) (Candida Crop)
what kind of candida albicans-based disease can horses get? metritis, vaginitis
what is candida albicans able to do in tissue? switch from yeast to filamentous state
what agar can you grow candida on? sabouraud agar
diagnosis of candida? KOH wet mount or gram stain- budding yeasts. culture. latex agglu. detect antigen in body fluids
treatment of candida? nystatin topical, ketoconazole, nystatin oral for GI overgrowth
what type of spectrum does nystatin have? narrow
what kind of fungi is cryptococcus? yeast
habitat of cryptococcus neoformans? soil, pigeon droppings
cryptococcus neoformans affects what animals? how are they infected? MOSTLY cats, dogs too. Infected via airborne infection->nasal granulomas. paranasal sinuses, hematogenous dissemination
symptoms of cryptococcus neoformans infection? snuffling, sneezing, mucopurulent/ hemmorhagic nasal discharge
diagnosis of cryptococcus neoformans? wet mount, culture, aggln test
treatment/control of cryptococcus neoformans? itraconazole, fluconazole(both better than ketoconazole) MAY REQUIRE >6 MONTHS OF TREATMENT, MIN 2 FOR CATS).....prevention by decontaminating affected premises
what is one of the reasons cryptococcus is so difficult to fight without medicine? capsule prevents phagocytosis
forms of cryptococcus neoformans in different places? temps? 25* enviro= yeast. 37* host= YEAST.
how does cryptococcus neoformans cause granulomas? disrupt host cell membranes
what kind of fungi is malassezia? yeast
what is the shape of malassezia pachydermatis? bottle/peanut shaped
what two diseases can malassezia pachydermatis cause? otitis externa if too many in ear of dog... CHRONIC DERMATITIS (pruritis[itching], alopecia, erythema)
diagnosis of malassezia pachydermatis? GRAM STAIN, wet mounts, culture on SAB (fungus) and BA (bacteria)
treatment of malassezia pachydermatis? nystatin or clotrimazole topical. ketoconazole (best of azoles for malassezia) oral for dermatitis
what does "panolog" treat? what is it composed of? treats malassezia pachydermatis, is nystatin(antiyeast) + neomycin(antibacterial) + triamcinolone acetonide(antiinflammatory)
what type of fungi is blastomycosis? where does it live?geographically? DIMORPHIC. soil borne (mycelial phase with spores)in USA.
how is blastomycosis able to infect? effect? aerosol inhalation -> granulomatous lesions in lungs -> resp. distress. "pulmonary blastomycosis"
what phase is blastomycosis in the enviro? in host? enviro=mycelial. host=yeast
does blastomycosis have a capsule? no
diagnosis of blastomycosis? wet mount of transtracheal aspirate or skin lesion exudate (budding yeast cells). culture 25* show mycelial form.
treatment of blastomycosis? itraconazole is drug of choice.
what type of fungi is histoplasma capsulatum? dimorphic
where does histoplasma live? geographically? soil enriched with bat/bird excretia ....in the USA
what animals affected by histoplasma? MOSTLY cats, dogs too
how is an animal infected by histoplasma capsulatum? infection via inhalation ->granulomatous lesions/nodules in lungs. intestine maybe affected.
symptomps of histoplasmosis? chronic cough, diarrhea, emaciation
diagnosis of histoplasmosis? histopath, buffy coat smear, serology (blood smear to show mult of yeast cells IN MACROPHAGES)
does histoplasma have a capsule? no, but a halo can sometimes be seen
what structures will you see on a culture of histoplasma capsulatum? mycelia and tuberculate macroconidia
treatment of histoplasma capsulatum? itraconazole and fluconazole
what type of fungi is coccidioides immitis? aka? dimorphic. "valley fever" in humans
where does coccidioides immitis live? geographically? in the soil/ dust-borne. southern USA, south america
what animal is most affected by coccidioides immitis? dogs
how are animals infected with coccidioides immitis? inhalation of infective arthrospores
shape of arthrospores of coccidioides immitis? barrel shaped
is coccidioides immitis transmittable to humans? no horizontal xmission from dog to man
affected organs of coccidioides immitis? lungs
signs of coccidioides immitis in dogs? dyspnea, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, seizures
diagnosis of coccidioides immitis? serology, DTH, coccidoidin, skin test, histopath
treatment of coccidioides immitis? how long? ketoconazole or itraconazole for up to 12 months
control of coccidioides immitis? reduce exposure to dust in endemic areas
what type of fungus is sporothrix schenckii, which causes sporotrichosis? dimorphic
what animals are affected by sporothrix schenckii? horses, mules (rarely dogs and cats)
where does sporothrix schenckii (sporotrichosis) live? geographically? soil-borne. worldwide.
how is an animal infected with sporothrix schenckii(sporotrichosis)? skin wounds -> lymphatic spread
is there horizontal transmission?(sporotrichosis) yes, example of cat to human
treatment of sporothrix schenckii (sporotrichosis)? potassium iodide and sodium iodide (horses), itraconazole for cats
what type of fungi cause zygomycosis? examples(meh)? dimorphic. Rhizopus, Mucor, Absidia, mortierella
what does saphrophite mean? live in soil/ decaying matter or in body
what dimorphic fungi is a saphrophite? zygomycosis
how does an animal aquire disease of zygomycosis? what can it cause? inhalation/ingestion...can cause MYCOTIC ABORTION
form of zygomycosis in enviro? tissue? enviro= closed sporangium. tissue= aseptate hyphae
treatment of zygomycosis? prognosis? amphotericin B. poor prog.
mycotoxins and mycotoxicosis
how does mycotoxicosis happen? mycotoxins produced by mold growing in feed
4 main effects of mycotoxicosis? acute/chronic poisoning, immunosuppression, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity
is mycotoxicosis contagious? nope
diagnosis of mycotoxicosis? indicators of problems? diag through demonstration of toxin, feed refusal/decreased feed consumption indicates possible problem
what type of disease is aflatoxicosis? mycotoxicosis
mycotoxicosis AFLATOXICOSIS caused by? (mainly)? ASPERGILLUS (and penicillium, rhizopus, mucor...)
what animals are typically affected by AFLATOXICOSIS? cattle, poultry
acute AFLATOXICOSIS signs? bloody diarrhea, death
subacute AFLATOXICOSIS signs? icterus, abortion
chronic AFLATOXICOSIS signs? decreased feed effeciency, rough coat
diagnosis of AFLATOXICOSIS? PM tissues, feed sample, HPLC, ELISA, chick embryo bioassay
prevention/control of AFLATOXICOSIS? test feed, ammoniate feed, addition of toxin binders
what type of disease is ochratoxicosis? mycotoxicosis
what fungi can cause mycotoxicosis ochratoxicosis? aspergillus, penicillium
animals affected by mycotoxicosis ochratoxicosis? pigs, poultry, horses
signs of mycotoxicosis ochratoxicosis? weight loss, kidney, liver damage, abortion
what causes mycotoxicosis ergotism? claviceps purpurea growth in seedheads
animals affected by ergotism? cattle, sheep, horses, pigs, poultry
signs of ergotism? neurotoxicity, convulsions, gangrene of extremeties
prevention of ergotism? ergots should be removed mechanically or by flotation methods
what type of disease is facial eczema? mycotoxicosis
organism that causes facial eczema? pithomyces chartarum
control of facial eczema? fungicide on pastures, zinc salts in feed to reduce liver toxicity
facial eczema causes lesions because of... photosensitivity
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