Bac-T - Gram(-) 3

drraythe's version from 2015-06-08 23:14


Question Answer
is brucella zoonotic?YES. all of them except B. ovis
shape and grams of brucella?g- coccobacilli
what kind of media do you need for brucella?enriched
where does brucella live?OBLIGATE genital tract parasites
where does brucella live?INTRACELLULARLY
what type of infection (duration) does brucella cause?chronic
is brucella a saphrophyte?no but it can survive outside apprx 6mo
what are the 5 brucella strains, and who do they affect?(1) B. abortus (cattle, rarely horses) (2) B. Suis (pigs) (3) B. melitensis (goat/sheep, SERIOUS HuMAN INFECTION) (4) B. Canis (dogs, low prevalence in USA and canada) (5) B. Ovis (sheep, rare, NOT ZOONOTIC)
which brucella can cause a serious human infection?B. melitensis (the goat/sheep one) (but not B. Ovis)
staining of brucella is? looks like?acid fast stain, bacteria pink and host cells blue
how does infection of brucella start in cows? (B. abortus)ingestion
which part of the male and female cattle/cow organs are affected from B. Abortus?epididimus(orchitis, epididimitis), placentitis
when does the abortion of the fetus of the cow happen in terms of the pregnancylate preg
what happens to fetus when infected with brucella?fetal edema, lung congestion, hemmorhage (brucella in stomach, lung)
what does/can brucellosis cause in horses?supraspinous bursitis (fistulous withers)
(CQ) humans do not get dz due to (of brucella species)B. Ovis
symptoms of B. Canis?often asymptomatic. lymphagenitis, infertility, abortion in late gestation, fetal autolysis, dark vaginal discharge (4-6wks), orchitics, scrotal dermatitis, semen abnormalities, rarely discospondylitis (lysis of vert. end plates and prolif of bone)
how do you diagnose brucellosis? (2)(1) serology (card test(agglu), agglu test) (2) culture (fetal stomach content, lung, placenta, discharges, milk, semen)
How do you control cow brucella?serological testing and elim + cattle, calfhood vaccine (can interfere w/serological testing), RB-51 vaccine (but live, so dangerous to ppl)
how do you treat food animals with brucella?you dont
do you breed dogs with brucella?no
how do you treat dogs with brucella?doxycycline + streptomycin for over a month for dogs
what is the vaccine for canine brucellosis called?haha, gotcha, there is no vaccine
can brucella infect humans?yes, all but B ovis.
brucella is a pathogen of what area?genitals
what is most important in diagnosis of brucella?serology
(CQ) are cattle treated with doxy for brucellosis?no
(CQ) does brucella infection in adults cause high mortalities?no
(CQ) can canine brucellosis be prevented by vaccination?no
(CQ) which vaccine can cause accidental infection in humans?brucella abortus RB51 vaccine


Question Answer
gram, shape of campy?g-, curvy rod
what are the 4 campys?C. fetus veneralis, C. fetus fetus, C. jejuni, C. coli
who does C. fetus veneralis affect, and what does it cause?cattle: endometritis, abortion
who does C. fetus fetus affect, and what does it cause?cattle/sheep: abortion
who does C. jejuni affect, and what does it cause?poultery,animals: entritis in humans and animals
who does C. coli affect, and what does it cause?pigs/poultry: human diarrhea
shape of C jejuniseagull flying appearance
shape of C fetusspiral
O2 requirements of C jejuni/fetusmicroaerophilic
which campy has a unique temp requirement, and what is it?jejuni, thermophilic (42*C)
why do we care about C jejuni?can be zoonotic
how do you culture jejuni?preston blood free medium (charcoal, cefoperazone, growth enahancers)
how do you culture C. fetus?blood agar with antibiotics ( inhibits contaminant bacteria)
C fetus venerealis localizes where? when does abortion occur?vagina, early abortion
C fetus fetus localizes where? when does abortion occur?placenta, last stage abortion
can you treat C fetus fetus and C fetus venerealis with vaccines?yes
what is the vaccine for C fetus fetus and C fetus venerealis? how effective?very effective bacterins
what is the habitat for C. jejuni?intestinal tracts of chickens/birds/ pigs
does C. jejuni affect the hosts?no, usually harmless to the bird carriers/pigs
how would you describe Lawsonia intracellularis?a campy-like bacterium (not campy but seems like it)
Lawsonia intracellularis causes what?porcine intestinal adenomatosis (PIA) (porcine proliferative enteropathy, chronic ileitis, garden hose gut)
Lawsonia intracellularis lives where? OBLIGATE interacellular pathogen
Question Answer
what do you culture Lawsonia intracellularis on?nothing, you cant culture it (can do tissue culture of chick embryos)
signs of Lawsonia intracellularis infection?mostly subclinical, mild diarrhea, reduced weight gain
how do you diagnose Lawsonia intracellularis?signs, histopath, PCR
drugs for Lawsonia intracellularis?tylosin in feed is used prophylactically
how can you stain Lawsonia intracellularis?silver stain
(CJ) is campy. jejuni likely to cause diarrhea in chicken?no
what did helicobacter used to be known as?campylobacter.
(CQ) best way to diagnose C. jejuni in dogs isuse of selective media for fecal culture
who/what does helicobacter pylori infect/cause?human gastric/duodenal ulcer
what can helicobacter cause in cats? what are the agents? (3)helicobacter gastritis in cats. H. heilmannii, H. felis, H. Pylori
signs/symptoms of helicobacter?usually infection is asymptomatic. Vomiting, weight loss (emaciation, diarrhea)
diagnosis of helicobacter?gastric biopsy- urease test, histology (see spiral organisms in gastric mucosa)
drugs to tx helicobacter?metronidazole, amoxicillin, clarithromycin or tatracycline + antisecretory agent bismuth
(CQ) is H. Pylori implicated in porcine intestional adenomatosis?no


Question Answer
shape of spirochetes? grams?slender spiral. DOESNT STAIN WELL WITH GRAMS
how do you differentiate spirochetes?morphology and antigenic properties
how do you diagnose/see spirochetes?dark-filed microscopy, FAT, serological tests
3 types of spirochetes?leptospira, brachyspira, borrelia
Leptospira affects who?many animals, also zoonotic
which leptospira is non-pathogenic?Leptospira biflexa (Water associated)
which leptospira has MOST pathogenic serovars?Leptospira interrogans
which leptospira is question-mark shaped?interrogans
which leptospira has a few pathogenic serovars?borgpetersenii
how do you culture leptospira?need SPECIAL BROTH MEDIA, blood agar is no use.
where do leptospira live in the body?kidneys -> urine
two majore signs of leptospirosis?hemogloinuria, and premature/weak calf
can leptospira live outside the body?can live weeks/months in water contaminated with urine
who is a reservoir host for several serovars of leptospira?rats/mice
how does lepto infect?via mucous membrane or damaged skin
clinical signs of Leptospira in cattle and pigs?fever, anemia, icterus, hemoglobinuria, infertility, abortion/weak offspring
how long do rats excrete leptospira?for life!
which serovars of leptospira affect cattle and pigs? (3)L hardjo (bovine), L pomona, L icterohemorrhagiae (bovine and porcine)
signs of leptospira in dogs most often?most cases mild/subclinical
acute signs of leptospira in dogs? which serotype causes this?fever, hemorrhages, icterus, death. Usually L. icterohemorrhagiae
less acute signs of leptospira in dogs? which sesrotype is to blame?anemia, anorexia, hepatitis, fever ( L. icterohemorrhagiae)
do cats get leptospirosis?no
signs of uremic type of leptospira in dogs? organism to blame?chronic interstitial nephritis --> oliguria, anuria, renl failure (L. canicola)
can leptospirosis in dogs cause jaundice?yes
clinical signs of leptospirosis in horses? how common is this? which situation/organism causes this?UNCOMMON, abortion/periodic opthalmia(recurrent conjunctivitis, iridocyclitis)--> blindness. Eye probs prolly due to immune complex deposition, L. bratislava is to blame
clinical signs of lepto in cats?clinical dz not seen
clinical signs of lepto in people?flu-like, rarely orchitis
(CQ) does the maintainance host of lepto carry it in their upper resp. tract?no (should be kidneys<--me: double check this)
how do you diagnose lepto? (5) urine sample with dark field microscopy, FA for urine sediment/tissues, serological tests (microscopic agglu, ELISA), culture of body fluid on special media, PCR (doesnt ID serovar)
is there a vaccine for lepto?yes, should contain antigens of LOCAL serovars to be effective
how can you control lepto?vaccine, rodent control, fence off ponds and streams, screen replacement shock
treatment of lepto?penicillin, streptomycin, tetracyclines (doxy for dogs)
tx for dogs for lepto?doxycycline
which serotypes does the lepto vaccine for dogs have? (4)L canicola, L icterohemorrhagiae, L pomona, L grippotyphosa
(CQ) how often do fatalities happen in cats with lepto?never, cats dont get dz
what is the pig lepto vaccine usually combined with?erysipelas
Treponema, brachyspira most comonly affect who?humans, rabbits, SWINE
what does Treponema pallidum cause? how common? tx?huamn syphilis. uncommmon, penicillin effective
what does Treponema paraluis-cuniculi cause? how common? tx?rabbit syphilis. uncommmon, penicillin effective
what does Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (formerly treponema) cause?swine dysentery
Brachyspira hyodysenteriae's O2 requirements?anaerobic but O2 tolerant.
where is Brachyspira hyodysenteriae limited to in the body?intestine
who is the carrier of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae?PIGS, (rats and mice can do some temporarily)
how are pigs infected with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae?fecal-oral infection
how can transmission occur?organism can survive in anaerobic pits, even fences for a while
(CQ) can Brachyspira hyodysenteriae survive for over a year?no, survive in fecal material for TWO MONTHS
clinical signs of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae?muco-hemorrhagic colitis--> blood and mucus in feces, colonic malabsorption--> dehydration, acidosis
how do you stain, what do you stain to diagnose Brachyspira hyodysenteriae?stain feces or colon content (india ink neg stain, wet mount, gram or giemsa)
how do you culture Brachyspira hyodysenteriae?culture on special BA (anaerobic)
can you PCR Brachyspira hyodysenteriae?yes but not sensitive
do you serological test Brachyspira hyodysenteriae?limited use
how do you control swine dysentery? (Brachyspira hyodysenteriae)sanitation/disinfection concurrently, rest for 60days (organism dies off), quarantine and medication
tx of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae (swine dysentery)?antibiotics (TYLOSIN) in feed for prevention AND tx
what is lyme dz caused by?Borrelia: B. burgdorferi
main symptom of lyme dz?arthritis
how is lyme spread?tick borne
(CQ) does orchitis and semen abnormalities manifest in lyme dz in dogs?no (brucella causes this)
is lyme dz (B. burgdorferi) zoonotic?yes, humans get "human erythema chronicum migrans" (ECM)
clinical signs of lyme dz in dogs?fever, polyarthritis, lameness
how often do dogs show clinical signs of lymes?only 5% of the time
does lymes affect the kidneys?rarely, but can cause nephritis which is then fatal
how do you diagnose lymes?**HISTORY OF TICK EXPOSURE, signs, response to antibiotic therapy, serology (IFA, ELISA), and direct exam of body fluids (giemsa, FA, dark field)
how do you stain to diagnose lymes? WHAT do you stain?stain body fluids with giemsa
what are the types of lymes vaccines?new= ospA (outer sheath antigen) old= bacterins
treatment of lymes? how long?doxycycline (tetracycline) or other antibioticcs for 4 weeks
prevention of lyme?tick control